os-, zo-, so-, borun- (#)
Prefix meaning "out of, outside; from," but also "upwards, completely, deprive of, without."
From M.E., from O.Fr., from L. ex- "out of, from," akin to Gk. ex, ek "out of;" Av. uz-, us-, see below; from PIE base *eghs "out" (cf. Gaul. ex-; O.Ir. ess-; O.C.S. izu; Rus. iz).
Pers. os- (variants zo-, so-),
from Mid.Pers. us-, uz-; Av. uz-, us-
"out of, outside, from;" O.Pers. ud- (ud-apatatā "to rise up, rebel"),
also Pers. preposition az "from; of; out of," suffixes zo-
(in zodudan "to polish, clean;" Mid.Pers. uzdâtan; Av. uzdā-,
from uz- + dā- "to make, create"), âz- (âzmâyeš,
→ experiment), haz- (haziné
"cost, expenditure;" Mid.Pers.
uzên, uzênak, from *uz-ayana- "going out;"
Av. us- + ay- "to go" (→ assembly);
PIE *ud- "up, out," cf. Skt. úd "up, away, out;"
O.E. ūt "out;" E. out; O.H.G. ūz "out;" Ger. aus;
Russ. vy- "out."
A prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1018.
Adopted in 1991, from Gk. ex "six," because it is equal to (1000)6.
1) Strictly accurate or correct; precise, as opposed to approximate.
Razin "firm, solid, strong" [Dehxodâ, Steingass], Mid.Pers. razên "firm, strong, secure, solid."
Fr.: différentielle exacte
exact differential equation
hamugeš-e degarsâneyi-ye razin
Fr.: équation différentielle exacte
A → differential equation composed of → continuous → differentiable functions for which certain conditions are fulfilled. The equation M(x,y)dx + N(x,y)dy = 0 is called exact if M(x,y) and N(x,y) are continuous differentiable functions for which the following relationship is fulfilled: ∂M/∂y = ∂N/∂x, and ∂M/∂y and ∂N/∂x are continuous in some region.
Fr.: nombre exact
A value that is known with complete certainty. Examples of exact numbers are defined numbers, results of counts, certain unit conversions. Some examples: there are exactly 100 centimeters in 1 meter, a full circle is exactly 360°, and the number of students in a class can exactly be 25.
Fr.: science exacte
A field of study that admits especially precise predictions and rigorous methods of testing hypotheses, especially reproducible experiments involving quantifiable predictions and measurements.
1) The act of examining; inspection; inquiry; investigation.
Noun from → examine.
1) To inspect or scrutinize carefully.
M.E., from M.Fr. examiner "interrogate, question," from L. examinare "to test or try; consider," literally "to weigh," from examen "a means of weighing or testing," probably ultimately from exigere "weigh accurately," → exact.
One of a number of things, or a part of something, taken to show the character of the whole.
From O.Fr. essample, from L. exemplum "a sample," literally "that which is taken out," from eximere "to take out, remove," from → ex- + emere "to obtain, buy," originally "to take," from PIE base *em- "to take" (cf. Av. yam-, yās- "to hold, take hold of," apayeiti (with apa) "taking away a thing from;" O.Pers. āyasa- "to take as one's own;" Skt. yam- "to hold, sustain," yamati "holds, subdues;" O.C.S. imo "to take;" Lith. imti, ima, émé "to take").
Possessing outstanding quality or superior merit; remarkably good (Dictionary.com).
M.E., from O.Fr. excellent "outstanding," from L. excellentem (nominative excellens) "towering, prominent, superior," pr.p. of excellere "to surpass, be superior,"from → ex- "out from" + cellere "to rise high, tower," related to celsus "high, great," from PIE root *kel- "to be elevated; hill;" from which are derived L. collis "hill," columna "projecting object," culmen "top, summit," cellere "raise;" Gk. kolonos "hill," kolophon "summit;" Lithuanian kalnas "mountain," kalnelis "hill;" E. hill; Pers. dialects (Gilân) kol, kulâ "hill," (Dâmqân) kalut, kolut "successive soil hills, hill," (Tabari) keti "hill," (Jâsk) kit "hill."
Mid.Pers. pahrom "excellent," variant pahlom, ultimately from *parθama- "the highest, the most elevated," literally "Parthian," adj. from Parθa(va)-; cf. pahlavân "hero," another similar respect word related to Parthia (Nyberg 1974).
The center of an → excircle.
1) sogert, bé sogert-e; 2) sogertidan
Fr.: excepté, à l'exception de, sauf, hormis
1) With the exclusion of; excluding.
1) The act of excepting or the fact of being excepted.
Verbal noun of → except.
Forming an exception; not ordinary.
fozuni (#), ferehbud
From L. excessus "going beyond bounds," from stem of excedere "to go beyond," from → ex- "out" + cedere "to go, yield;" cf. Gk. hodos "way;" PIE base *ked- "to go, yield."
Fozuni, from afzuni "excess," afzuni kardan "to exceed bounds,"
from afzudan "to add, increase," from Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;"
O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from
abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav-
"press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Sk. jav- "to press forward,
impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens."
1) gahulidan (#); 2) gahul, gahuleš
Fr.: 1) échanger; 2) échange
O.Fr. eschangier, from V.L. *excambiare, from L. → ex- "out" + cambire "barter."
Mod.Pers. gahulidan "to exchange," Kurd. guhartin/guhêr- "to exchange," Mid.Pers. wihir "to change," wihirišn "change," Manichean Mid.Pers. hr'g; Buddhist Mid.Pers. hlg "duty, tribute; work, effort;" Arm. loanword hark "duty, tribute;" Ar. loanword xarj "expense," xarâj "land, property tax;" Proto-Iranian *har- "to barter, trade; to pay tribute;" IE cognates: Gk. elein "to take (by force)," elor "loot, booty, catch;" Goth. saljan "to bring, to sacrifice;" O.E. sellan "to hand over, sell;" O.H.G. sala "delivery of goods."
Fr.: force d'échange
The force that governs the exchange of particles in the interaction between bodies. → exchange particle.
Fr.: particule d'échange
In quantum field theory, a particle that transfers momentum and energy between interacting objects, and is said to mediate the interaction. All four of the fundamental forces involve the exchange of one or more particles. For example, photon is the exchange particle of the electromagnetic force.
Chemistry: A complex formed from combination of a molecule with another molecule of the same type but in an → excited state. In other words, a → dimer in an electronically excited state. See also → exciplex.