An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 663
external
  بیرونی   
biruni (#)

Fr.: externe   

Of or pertaining to the outside or outer part.

M.E., from M.Fr. externe or directly from L. externus "outside, outward," from exterus, a comparative of → ex-, + → -al.

Biruni, adj. from birun "out, the outside," → out.

external photoelectric effect
  اسکر ِ شید-برقی ِ برونی   
oskar-e šid-barqi-ye boruni

Fr.: effet photoélectrique externe   

The → photoelectric effect in solids where free electrons are emitted from the surface of a substance (e.g., → semiconductor) when radiation of appropriate frequency falls on it. Also called → photoemissive effect.

external; → photoelectric; → effect.

external work
  کار ِ بیرونی   
kâr-e biruni

Fr.: travail externe   

The work done by a thermodynamic system as it expands against its surrounding environment. It is equal to ∫pdV, where p is the applied external pressure and V the volume, integrated from the initial V1 to final V2.

external; → work.

externalization
  برونش   
boruneš

Fr.: extériorisation   

Verbal noun of → externalize.

externalize + → -tion.

externalize
  برونیدن   
borunidan

Fr.: intériorisation   

1) To make external; embody in an outward form.
2) To regard or treat as being caused by externals; attribute to external causes (Dictionary.com).

external + → -ize.

extinction
  خاموشی   
xâmuši (#)

Fr.: extinction   

1) Dimming of light by an intervening medium (the Earth's atmosphere or the interstellar medium). It is usually due to both scattering and absorption.
2) Paleontology: The act or process of dying out or coming to an end, becoming extinct: the extinction of a species; → mass extinction.

Noun of extinct, from L. extinctus, p.p. of extinguere "to quench, wipe out," from → ex- "out" + stinguere "to quench," from PIE base *steig- "to prick, stick, pierce;" cf. Mod.Pers. tiz, tež, tig, tej, tij, tiq "sharp;" Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow;" → deblur.

Xâmuši, noun of xâmuš "extinguished; silent," Mid.Pers. xâmôš "silent;" cf. Skt. amrs- "to bear patiently."

extinction coefficient
  همگر ِ خاموشی   
hamgar-e xâmuši

Fr.: coefficient d'extinction   

Gradient of apparent magnitude with air mass.

extinction; → coefficient.

extinction correction
  ارشایش ِ خاموشی   
aršâyeš-e xâmuši

Fr.: correction d'extinction   

In → photometric calibration, the correction for energy loss undergone by radiation due to the → atmospheric extinction. Extinction correction is done using → standard stars observed at different → airmasses.

extinction; → correction.

extinction curve
  خم ِ خاموشی   
xam-e xâmuši

Fr.: courbe de l'extinction interstellaire   

A graph representing the variation of the → interstellar extinction against → wavelength. Usually it displays the → normalized values of extinction as a function of (the → inverse) of the wavelength (in → microns). See, e.g., Sandage & Mathis, 1979, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 17, 73.

extinction; → curve.

extinction stars
  ستارگان ِ خاموشی   
setâregân-e xâmuši

Fr.: étoiles d'extinction   

Stars specifically observed at selected air masses in view of determining the atmospheric extinction coefficients.

extinction; → star.

ExTrA
  اکسترا   
ExTrA

Fr.: ExTrA   

A facility at → European Southern Observatory (ESO)'s → La Silla Observatory funded by the European Research Council and the French Agence National de la Recherche with the purpose of detecting and studying → transiting  → exoplanets. ExTrA will search for Earth-sized planets orbiting nearby → red dwarf stars. It uses three 0.6-metre telescopes. They regularly monitor the amount of light received from many red dwarf stars and look for a slight dip in brightness that could be caused by a planet passing across a star's disk and obscuring some of its light. The three ExTra telescopes collect light from the target star and four comparison stars and that light is then fed through optical fibres into a → multi-object spectrograph. This innovative approach of adding → spectroscopic information to traditional photometry helps mitigate the disruptive effect of Earth's atmosphere, as well as effects introduced by instruments and detectors, thus increasing the precision achievable.

ExTrA, short for Exoplanets in Transits and their Atmospheres, → exoplanet; → transit; → atmosphere.

extra-
  استر-، برون-   
ostar-, borun- (#)

Fr.: extra-   

Prefix meaning "outside; beyond the scope of; in addition to what is used or expected." Also extro-.

M.E., from L. extra, adverb and preposition, "outside, except, beyond," from exter "outward, on the outside."

Ostar-, from os-, → ex-, + -tar comparative suffix (Mid.Pers. -tar; Av. -tara; PIE base *-tero); borun-, from borun "out, the outside" (Mid.Pers. bêron, from "outside, out, away" + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river").

extragalactic
  استرکهکشانی، برون‌کهکشانی   
ostar-kahkašâni, borun-kahkašâni

Fr.: extragalactique   

Of, pertaining to, or dealing with the space beyond the Milky Way.

From → extra- + → galactic.

extragalactic astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ استرکهکشانی، ~ برون‌کهکشانی   
axtaršenâi-ye ostar-kahkašâni, ~ borun-kahkašâni

Fr.: astronomie extragalactique   

The branch of astronomy that deals with objects beyond the Milky Way, especially galaxies and quasars.

extragalactic; → astronomy.

extragalactic background light (EBL)
  نور ِ پس-زمینه‌ی ِ استر-کهکشانی   
nur-e paszimine-ye ostarkahkeši

Fr.: lumière du fond extragalactique   

The integrated intensity of all of the light emitted throughout the history of the Universe across the whole of the → electromagnetic spectrum, including those which are not individually detected. The EBL spectrum includes cosmological backgrounds associated with either primordial phenomena, such as the → cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), or photons emitted by stars, galaxies and → active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to → nucleosynthesis or other → radiative processes, including → dust scattering, → absorption and reradiation. The EBL may also contain signals that are diffuse and extended, including high-energy photons associated with dark matter particle decays or annihilation.

extragalactic; → background; → light.

extraordinary
  استرشونیک   
ostaršunik

Fr.: extraordinaire   

1) Beyond what is usual, ordinary, regular, or established.
2) Exceptional in character, amount, extent, degree, etc. (Dictionary.com). → unordinary.

extra-; → ordinary.

extraordinary ray
  پرتو ِ استرشونیک   
partov-e ostaršunik

Fr.: rayon extraordinaire   

When a beam of → unpolarized light is incident on a → doubly refracting crystal, there will be two refracted rays. The ray for which → Snell's law does not hold.

extraordinary; → ray.

extrapolate
  برون‌یافتن   
borunyâftan (#)

Fr.: extrapoler   

Math.: To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a series of known values.

From → extra- + (inter)polate, → interpolate.

From borun, → extra- + yâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire;" Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach."

extrapolation
  برون‌یابش   
borunyâbeš (#)

Fr.: extrapolation   

Predicting the value of unknown data points by projecting a function beyond the range of known data points.

Verbal noun of → extrapolate.

extrasolar
  اُسترخورشیدی   
ostarxoršidi

Fr.: extrasolaire   

Not belonging to the → solar system; outside, or originating outside, the solar system.

extra-; → solar.

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