Fr.: semiconducteur extrinsèque
A semiconductor, such as silicon, whose responsive properties can be altered by the addition of impurities. Copper- and mercury-doped germanium are both examples of this semiconductor material.
→ extrinsic; → semiconductor.
extrinsic variable star
setâre-ye vartande-ye borungin
Fr.: étoile variable extrinsèque
A star whose variation in apparent brightness is not due to changes in the star itself but to some external cause, such as eclipsing by a companion.
The organ of vision that detects light.
O.E. ege (Mercian), eage (W. Saxon), from P.Gmc. *augon, from PIE *okw- "to see;" cf. Av. aši- "(both) eyes;" Skt. áksi- "eye;" Gk. osse "(both) eyes;" Goth. augo; O.C.S. oko; Lith. akis; L. oculus; Arm. ac-kh "eye."
Cašm, from Mid.Pers. cašm, Av. cašman- "eye," ākas- "to look," from prefix ā- + Proto-Iranian *kas- "to look, appear," cf. Skt. cáksus- "seeing."
Fr.: dégagement oculaire
The distance between the eyepiece of a telescope and the location of the exit pupil. This is where the observer's eye should be positioned to see the entire field of view of the eyepiece. Also termed eye distance.
→ eye; relief, from M.E. relef, from O.Fr. relief "assistance," from relever "to raise," from L. relevare "to raise, alleviate," from re- intensive prefix, + levare "to lift up, lighten."
Cašm nehâd "eye position," from cašm, → eye, + nehâd "position, placing, posture," contracted form of nehâdan "to place, put;" Mid.Pers. nihâtan; Av. ni- "down; into," → ni-, + dā- "to put; to establish; to give," dadāiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadāti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. do "I give;" PIE base *do- "to give."
gazand-e cašm, zilegi-ye ~
Fr.: sécurité oculaire
The necessary precautions that must be taken in order to avoid damaging the eyes when watching a → solar eclipse. The only time that the Sun can be viewed safely with the naked eye is during a → total eclipse, when the Moon completely covers the disk of the Sun. It is never safe to look at a → partial eclipse or → annular eclipse, or the partial phases of a total solar eclipse, without the proper equipment and techniques. Even when 99% of the Sun's surface (the → photosphere) is obscured during the partial phases of a solar eclipse, the remaining crescent Sun is still intense enough to cause permanent retinal damage, especially when viewed through binoculars or other optical aids (F. Espenak, NASA).
Gazand "damage, injury," Mid.Pers. wizend,
ultimately from *ui-jan-, from *ui- "apart, away from,"
→ expand, + *jan- "to beat, strike,"
cf. Pers. zan-, zadan "to beat, strike," → beat;
cašm, → eye
A device consisting of a pair of glass or plastic lenses worn in a frame in front of the eyes to help correct imperfect vision or protect the eyes from light, dust, and the like. Also called glasses, spectacles.
Eynak, probably related to âyené "mirror," âbginé "glass" (Mid.Pers. êwênag "mirror," from *âdênak, from Proto-Iranian *ādayanaka-, from prefix ā- + the root of Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees" (cf. Mod.Pers. didan "to see," Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen") + suffix -ak). Other obsolete Pers. equivalents for eyeglasses are cešm-e farangi "Frank/European eye" and âyene-ye farangi "Frank/European glass." And it seems that the oldest mention of eyeglasses in Pers. is by the poet Jâmi (1414-1492), who calls it farangi šišé "Frank/European glass." These paradigms support the relation between eynak and âyené. As for the more recent term sam'ak "hearing aid," which is invoked to relate eynak to eyn (Ar. 'ayn "eye"), it may have been coined on the model of eynak supposing that eyn means "eye."
Cašmi "ocular," adj. of cašm→ eye + -i adj. suffix.