Einstein static Universe
giti-ye istâ-ye Einstein
Fr.: Univers stationnaire d'Einstein
A cosmological model in which a static (neither expanding nor collapsing) Universe is maintained by introducing a cosmological repulsion force (in the form of the cosmological constant) to counterbalance the gravitational force.
damâ-ye Einstein (#)
Fr.: température d'Einstein
tânsor-e Einstein (#)
Fr.: tenseur d'Einstein
A mathematical entity describing the → curvature of → space-time in → Einstein's field equations, according to the theory of → general relativity. It is expressed by Gμν = Rμν - (1/2) gμνR, where Rμν is the Ricci tensor, gμν is the → metric tensor, and R the scalar curvature. This tensor is both symmetric and divergence free.
Named after Albert Einstein (1879-1955); → tensor.
marpel-e zamâni-ye Einstein
Fr.: échelle de temps d'Einstein
The time during which a → microlensing event occurs. It is given by the equation tE = RE/v, where RE is the → Einstein radius, v is the magnitude of the relative transverse velocity between source and lens projected onto the lens plane. The characteristic time-scale of → microlensing events is about 25 days.
Fr.: ascenseur d'Einstein
A → thought experiment, involving an elevator, first conceived by Einstein to show the → principle of equivalence. According to this experiment, it is impossible for an observer situated inside a closed elevator to decide if the elevator is being pulled upward by a constant force or is subject to a gravitational field acting downward on a stationary elevator. Einstein used this experiment and the principle of equivalence to deduce the bending of light by the force of gravity.
Bâlâbar, → lift.
Einstein's field equations
hamugešhâ-ye meydân-e Einstein
Fr.: équations de champ d'Einstein
A system of ten non-linear → partial differential equations in the theory of → general relativity which relate the curvature of → space-time with the distribution of matter-energy. They have the form: Gμν = -κ Tμν, where Gμν is the → Einstein tensor (a function of the → metric tensor), κ is a coupling constant called the → Einstein gravitational constant, and Tμν is the → energy-momentum tensor. The field equations mean that the curvature of space-time is due to the distribution of mass-energy in space. A more general form of the field equations proposed by Einstein is: Gμν + Λgμν = - κTμν, where Λ is the → cosmological constant.
Einstein's gravitational constant
pâyâ-ye gerâneši-ye Einstein (#)
Fr.: constante gravitationnelle d'Einstein
Einstein's theory of specific heat
negare-ye garmâ-ye âbize-ye Einstein
Fr.: théorie de la chaleur spécifique d'Einstein
Same as → Einstein model.
Einstein-de Sitter effect
oskar-e Einstein-de Sitter
Fr.: effet Einstein-de Sitter
Same as → geodetic precession.
Einstein-de Sitter Universe
giti-ye Einstein-de Sitter
Fr.: Univers Einstein-de Sitter
The → Friedmann-Lemaitre model of → expanding Universe that only contains matter and in which space is → Euclidean (ΩM > 0, ΩR = 0, ΩΛ = 0, k = 0). The Universe will expand at a decreasing rate for ever.
Fr.: action de Einstein-Hilbert
Fr.: paradoxe Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen
→ EPR paradox.
A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen: "Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?" Phys. Rev. 41, 777 (15 May 1935); → paradox.
Fr.: pont d'Einstein-Rosen
A hypothetical structure that can join two distant regions of → space-time through a tunnel-like shortcut, as predicted by → general relativity. The Einstein-Rosen bridge is based on the → Schwarzschild solution of → Einstein's field equations. It is the simplest type of → wormholes.
Albert Einstein & Nathan Rosen (1935, Phys.Rev. 48, 73); → bridge.
Fr.: relativité einsteinienne
The laws of physics are the same in all → inertial reference frames and are invariant under the → Lorentz transformation. The → speed of light is a → physical constant, i.e. it is the same for all observers in uniform motion. Einsteinian relativity is prompted by the → Newton-Maxwell incompatibility. See also: → Galilean relativity, → Newtonian relativity.
A radioactive metallic → transuranium element belonging to the → actinides; symbol Es. → Atomic number 99, → mass number of most stable → isotope 254 (→ half-life 270 days). Eleven isotopes are known. The element was first identified by A. Ghiorso and collaborators in the debris of first hydrogen bomb explosion in 1952.
To throw out material, for example by a massive star through stellar wind, or by a volcano in eruption.
From L. ejectus, p.p. of eicere "to throw out," from → ex- "out" + -icere, comb. form of jacere "to throw."
Ešândan, from Hamadâni ešândan "to throw out;" Pashto aestal, wištal "to throw, project;" Laki owštan "to throw, to shoot (with bow and arrow);" Lori šane "throwing," šane kerde "to throw;" Av. ah- "to throw," pres. ahya- "throws," asta- "thrown, shot," astar- "thrower, shooter;" cf. Khotanese ah- "to throw, shoot," Skt. as- "to throw, shoot," ásyati "throws," ásana- "throw, shot."
Material, in solid, liquid, or gaseous form, thrown out by a body, especially as a result of → volcanic eruption, → meteoritic impact, or → supernova explosion. See also: → ejecta blanket, → supernova ejecta.
Plural of L. ejectus, → eject.
Ešânâk "that which is ejected," from šân present stem of šândan→ eject + suffix -âk.
Fr.: couverture d'éjecta
Act or instance of ejecting; the state of being ejected.
Verbal noun of → eject.
Fr.: couche d'Ekman
A kind of viscous → boundary layer in a rotating fluid system. Such a layer forms over a flat bottom that exerts a frictional → stress against the flow, bringing the velocity gradually to zero within the layer above the bottom. An Ekman layer occurs also on the fluid surface whenever there is a horizontal frictional stress, for example along ocean surface, when waters are subject to wind stress.
Named for Vagn Walfrid Ekman (1874-1954), Swedish oceanographer, who studied the phenomenon originally in his doctoral thesis (1902) and later developed it (1905, 1906); → layer.