force multiplier parameter
pârâmun-e bastâgar-e niru
Fr.: paramètre de multiplicateur de force
One of the three quantities (k, α, and δ) which are used in the → radiation-driven wind theory to express the radiation pressure due to spectral lines. These coefficients parametrize the radiation acceleration as: grad≅ k(dv/dr)αge, where ge = σeL/4πcR*2 is the radiative acceleration by electron scattering. The parameter k is dependent on the number of lines that produce the radiation pressure. The parameter α depends on the optical depth of the driving lines and varies between 0 (optically thin) and 1 (optically thick). The parameter δ describes the dependence of k on the density with k ≅ ρδ. The velocity law of radiation-driven winds depends on α and δ, but not on k. The → mass loss rate depends on k, α, and δ (Castor et al. 1975, ApJ 195, 157; Lamers et al., 1995, ApJ 455, 269 and references therein).
Fr.: système de forces
Any set of forces acting on a → rigid body.
force-free magnetic field
Fr.: champ magnétique sans force
The condition in a plasma when the → Lorentz force is zero, that is when the electric current flows along the magnetic field. Force-free magnetic fields are encountered in astrophysical plasmas with negligible gas pressure. The solar corona is the best available example of such fields in action in a plasma.
1) Physics: Caused by an external force.
→ forced oscillation.
Adjective from → force.
Adjective from zur, → strength.
Fr.: écoulement forcé
A fluid flow generated when external forces cause the fluid to flow, for example when a flow is caused by a pump. It contrasts with → free flow.
Fr.: oscillation forcée
The oscillation of a system or object induced by an external periodic force. See also → free oscillation.
The ground or parts situated, or represented as situated, in the front; the portion of a scene or stellar field nearest to the viewer. → background.
From fore, from O.E. fore (prep.) "before, in front of;" (adv.) "before, previously" (cf. O.H.G. fora, Ger. vor, Goth. faiura); from PIE *per-/*pr- (cf. Skt. pura "before, formerly;" Av. paro "before;" Hittite para- "on, forth;" Gk. paros "before," para "from beside, beyond," peri "around, about, toward," pro "before;" L. pro "before, for, instead of," prae "before," per "through, for") + ground, from M.E., from O.E. grund; akin to O.H.G. grunt "ground."
Pišzaminé, from piš- "before; in front," from Mid.Pers. pêš "before, earlier;" O.Pers. paišiya "before; in the presence of" + ziminé "ground," from zamin "earth, ground" → earth.
Fr.: absorption d'avant-plan
Loss of radiant energy received from an astronomical object due to the presence of absorbing matter situated between the object and observer.
M.E., from O.Fr. forest, probably from L.L. forestis (silva) "the outside woods," from L. foris "outside."
Jangal "a wood, forest, a vast land with plenty of trees;" cf. Skt. jangala- "arid , sparingly grown with trees and plants."
došâx, došâxé; cangâl
Fr.: fourche; forchette
1) An instrument having two or more prongs or tines, for holding, lifting, etc.,
as an implement for handling food or any of various agricultural tools (dictionary.com).
Fork, from O.E. forca, from L. furca "pitchfork," of uncertain origin; → mounting.
"two-pronged; fork," from do "two" (Mid.Pers. do, Av. dva-,
Skt. dvi-, Gk. duo, L. duo, E. two, Ger. zwei,
Fr. deux) + šâx "branch; horn," from Mid.Pers. šâk "branch;"
cf. Lith. šaka "branch;" O.S. soxa "plough;" Gothic hoha "plough."
Fr.: monture à fourche
1) dis, disé (#); 2) disidan (#); 3) disândan (#)
Fr.: 1) forme; 2) se former; 3) former
1) (n.) General: The shape and structure of something as distinguished
from its material.
From O.Fr. forme, from L. forma "form, mold, shape, case," origin unknown.
Dis, disé "form, appearance," variants -diz, -diš (tandis
"body form, like a body; effigy;" mâhdis "moon-like;"
šabdiz "night color; a horse of
dark rusty color;" andiš- "to think, contemplate"), from Mid.Pers.
dêsag "form, appearance," dêsidan
"to form, build;" Av. daēs- "to show," daēsa- "sign, omen;"
cf. Skt. deś-
"to show, point out;" PIE *deik- "to show" (cf. Gk. deiknumi "to show,"
dike "manner, custom;" L. dicere "to utter, say;" O.H.G. zeigon,
Ger. zeigen "to show;" O.E. teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach").
1) According to, or following established or prescribed forms, conventions, etc.
Diseyi, desevar, from dis, → form, + adj. suffixes -i and -var.
Fr.: langage formel
A language designed for use in situations in which natural language is unsuitable, as for example in → mathematics, → logic, or → computer → programming. The symbols and formulas of such languages stand in precisely specified syntactic and semantic relations to one another (Dictionary.com).
guyik-e diseyi, ~ disevar
Fr.: logique formelle
The traditional or → classical logic in which the → validity or → invalidity of a conclusion is deduced from two or more statements (→ premises). Based on Aristotle's (384-322 BC) theory of → syllogism, systematized in his book "Organon," its focus is not on what is stated (the content) but on the structure (form) of the → argument and the validity of the inference drawn from the premises of the argument; if the premises are true then the logical consequence must also be true. Formal logic is → bivalent, that is it recognizes only two → truth values: → true and → false. The basic principles of formal logic are: 1) → principle of identity, 2) → principle of excluded middle, and 3) → principle of non-contradiction. See also → symbolic logic, → fuzzy logic.
râžmân-e diseyi, ~ disevar
Fr.: système formel
In logic and mathematics, a system in which statements can be constructed and manipulated with logical rules.
A colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating odor used as an adhering component of
glues in many wood products. Formaldehyde (H2CO)
is obtained most commonly by the oxidation of methanol or petroleum gases such as
methane, ethane, etc.
From form(ic) acid, from Fr. formique, + → aldehyde.
1) Excessive adherence to prescribed forms.
1) Condition or quality of being formal; accordance with required or
traditional rules, procedures, etc.
1) The act of giving something a form or structure by introducing rules