1) A small, hard seed of plants, especially the seed of cereals.
M.E. grain, grein, from O.Fr. grein, from L. granum "seed;" akin to corn.
Dâné "grain, seed;" Mid.Pers. dân, dânag "seed, corn;" Av. dānô- in dānô.karš- "carrying grains; an ant;" cf. Skt. dhânâ- "corn, grain;" Tokharian B tāno "grain;" Lith. duona "corn, bread."
Fr.: coagulation des grains
Sticking together of micron- to centimetre-sized grains occurring in the interstellar and protoplanetary environments to form larger grain agglomerates.
Fr.: évaporation des grains
Conversion of dust grains into smaller grains due to high environmental temperatures.
Fr.: formation des grains
The process by which dust grains are assembled or produced.
ruyeš-e dâné (#)
Fr.: croissance des grains
The increase of dust grains to micron sizes in the interstellar environments due to various physical processes, for example mutual collisions and accumulation of ice mantles.
rupuš-e dâné (#)
Fr.: manteau de grain
A layer of icy molecules covering interstellar dust grains.
→ grain; mantle, from O.E. mentel "loose, sleeveless cloak," from L. mantellum "cloak," perhaps from a Celtic source.
Rupuš "overgarment, cloak," from ru "surface, face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + puš "covering, mantle," from pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").
Fr.: érosion des grains par pulvérisation
The ejection of atoms from interstellar dust grains due to impact by gas ions, which leads to grain destruction.
→ grain; sputtering, from sputter "to spit with explosive sounds," cognate with Du. sputteren.
Osparâni, verbal noun of osparândan, from os- "out of, outside," → ex- + parândan "to eject," transitive of paridan "to fly" (from Mid./Mod.Pers. par(r) "feather, wing," Av. parəna- "feather, wing;" cp. Skt. parna "feather," E. fern; PIE *porno- "feather").
A unit of mass equal to one thousandth of a kilogram.
From Fr. gramme, from L.L. gramma "small weight," from Gk. gramma "small weight," originally "letter of the alphabet," from stem of graphein "to draw, write."
Geram, loanword from Fr. gramme, as above.
grand design spiral galaxy
kahkešân-e mârpic-e farsâz
Fr.: galaxie spirale parfaite
A galaxy with prominent → arms that are clearly attached to the central → bulge or → bar spiraling continuously outward until they reach the edge of the visible disk. Some examples are: → Whirlpool galaxy (M51), M74 (NGC 628), and NGC 2997.
M.E. graunt, from O.Fr. grant, grand, from L. grandis "big, great," also "full-grown;" design, from M.E. designen, from L. designare "mark out, designate, appoint," from → de- "out" + signare "to mark," from signum→ sign; → spiral; → galaxy.
grand unified theory (GUT)
negare-ye yegâneš-e bozorg (#)
Fr.: théorie de la grande unification
Any physical theory that unites the strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions at high energy. It is hoped that GUTs can ultimately be extended to incorporate gravity. → theory of everything.
The mottled appearance of the solar → photosphere, caused by → convective cells, resembling → granules, which rises from the interior of the Sun. Each granule has a mean size of about 1,000 km and an upward velocity of about 0.5 km/sec. Granules are separated by intergranular walls about 400 K colder. They emerge from the fragments of the preceding granules and their lifetimes are about 20 minutes.
From → granule + -ation a combination of -ate and -ion, used to form nouns from stems in -ate.
Dâne-bandi, from dâné, → grain, + bandi verbal noun of bastan, vastan "to bind, shut;" O.Pers./Av. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind).
A tiny grain; a small particle.
The edible, pulpy, smooth-skinned berry or fruit that grows in clusters on vines of the genus Vitis, and from which wine is made (Dictionary.com).
M.E., from O.Fr. grape "bunch of grapes, grape."
Angur "grape," from Mid.Pers. angur "grape;" cf. Khwarazmi 'nkyδ, Yidgha agidro, Munji aglero, Shughni angûrδ, related to quré "unripe grape."
Fr.: diagramme, graphique, graphe
1) A visual representation of data that displays the relationship among variables,
usually cast along X and Y axes.
Short for graphic (formula), from L. graphicus "of painting or drawing," from Gk. graphikos "able to draw or paint," from graph(ein) "to draw, write" + -ikos, → ic.
Negâré, from negâr "picture, figure" (verb negârdan, negâštan "to paint"), from prefix ne-, O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; into," → ni-, + gâr, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base *kwer- "to do, to make").
Fr.: théorie des graphes
(Adj.) Pertaining to the use of diagrams, graphs, mathematical curves, or the like.
A particular crystalline form of → carbon occurring as a soft, black,
lustrous mineral. The carbon atoms in graphite are strongly bonded together in sheets.
Because the bonds between the sheets are weak, other atoms can easily fit between them,
causing graphite to be soft and slippery to the touch. Graphite conducts electricity
and is used in lead pencils and electrolytic anodes, as a lubricant, and as a
moderator in nuclear reactors. If graphite is subjected to high pressure, it
will be transformed into → diamond.
From Ger. Graphit, from Gk. graph(ein) "to write, draw," so called because it was used for pencils, → graph + -it a suffix of chemical compounds, equivalent to E. -ite.
turi, ~ -e parâš (#)
Same as → diffraction grating.
M.E. grating, M.L. grata "a grating," variant of crata, from crat-, stem of cratis "wickerwork."
Turi, from tur "fishing net, net, snare," variants târ "thread, warp, string," tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect), cognate with tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" Skt. tan- to stretch, extend;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" tántra- "warp; essence, main point;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" Lith. tiñklas "net, fishing net, snare," Latv. tikls "net;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch").
zâviye-ye turi (#)
Fr.: angle de réseau
The angle between the incident optical beam and the normal to the grating. It is the angle to which the grating must be set to place the desired wavelength at the center of the detector.
kârâyi-ye turi (#)
Fr.: efficacité de réseau
The measure of the light intensity diffracted from a grating.