An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 417
graduation
  پداکش، پداک‌دهی، پداک‌گیری   
padâkeš, padâk dehi, padâk giri

Fr.: graduation   

1) Marking the scale of an instrument, e.g. the stem of a thermometer is graduated in degrees.
2) An act of graduating; the state of being graduated.

Verbal noun of → graduate.

grain
  دانه   
dâné (#)

Fr.: grain   

1) A small, hard seed of plants, especially the seed of cereals.
2) A tiny portion or particle of something such as sand or salt; → dust grain.

M.E. grain, grein, from O.Fr. grein, from L. granum "seed;" akin to corn.

Dâné "grain, seed;" Mid.Pers. dân, dânag "seed, corn;" Av. dānô- in dānô.karš- "carrying grains; an ant;" cf. Skt. dhânâ- "corn, grain;" Tokharian B tāno "grain;" Lith. duona "corn, bread."

grain coagulation
  ماسش ِ دانه   
mâseš-e dâné

Fr.: coagulation des grains   

Sticking together of micron- to centimetre-sized grains occurring in the interstellar and protoplanetary environments to form larger grain agglomerates.

grain; → coagulation.

grain evaporation
  بخارش ِ دانه   
boxâreš-e dâné

Fr.: évaporation des grains   

Conversion of dust grains into smaller grains due to high environmental temperatures.

grain; → evaporation.

grain formation
  دیسش ِ دانه   
diseš-e dâné

Fr.: formation des grains   

The process by which dust grains are assembled or produced.

grain; → formation.

grain growth
  رویش ِ دانه   
ruyeš-e dâné (#)

Fr.: croissance des grains   

The increase of dust grains to micron sizes in the interstellar environments due to various physical processes, for example mutual collisions and accumulation of ice mantles.

grain; → growth.

grain mantle
  روپوش ِ دانه   
rupuš-e dâné (#)

Fr.: manteau de grain   

A layer of icy molecules covering interstellar dust grains.

grain; mantle, from O.E. mentel "loose, sleeveless cloak," from L. mantellum "cloak," perhaps from a Celtic source.

Rupuš "overgarment, cloak," from ru "surface, face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + puš "covering, mantle," from pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").

grain sputtering
  ا ُسپرانی ِ دانه   
osparâni-ye dâné

Fr.: érosion des grains par pulvérisation   

The ejection of atoms from interstellar dust grains due to impact by gas ions, which leads to grain destruction.

grain; sputtering, from sputter "to spit with explosive sounds," cognate with Du. sputteren.

Osparâni, verbal noun of osparândan, from os- "out of, outside," → ex- + parândan "to eject," transitive of paridan "to fly" (from Mid./Mod.Pers. par(r) "feather, wing," Av. parəna- "feather, wing;" cp. Skt. parna "feather," E. fern; PIE *porno- "feather").

gram
  گرم   
geram (#)

Fr.: gramme   

A unit of mass equal to one thousandth of a kilogram.

From Fr. gramme, from L.L. gramma "small weight," from Gk. gramma "small weight," originally "letter of the alphabet," from stem of graphein "to draw, write."

Geram, loanword from Fr. gramme, as above.

grammar
  دستور ِ زبان، زبان-دستور   
dastur-e zabân, zabân-dastur

Fr.: grammaire   

1) The study of the way the sentences of a language are constructed; → morphology and → syntax.
2) These features or constructions themselves (Dictionary.com).

M.E. gramarye, from O.Fr. gramaire "grammar; learning," especially Latin and philology, an "irregular semi-popular adoption" of L. grammatica, from Gk. grammatike (tekhne) "(art) of letters" with a sense of both philology and literature, from grammatikos "pertaining to or versed in letters or learning," from gramma "letter," → -gram.

Dastur-e zabân, literally "language rule," from dastur "rule; mandate, command; religious authority (of the Zoroastrians);" Mid.Pers. dast "able, capable;" Av. danh- "to teach, instruct;" cf. Skt. dams- "to show or teach wonderful skills, perform wise;" Gk. didasko "I learn;" PIE *dens- "to become skilfull; to teach, instruct" (Cheung 2007); + zabân, → language.

grammarian
  زبان-دستوردان   
zabân-dasturdân

Fr.: grammarien   

A specialist or expert in grammar.

From O.Fr. gramairien "learned man, person who knows Latin," agent noun from grammaire, → grammar.

Zabân-dasturdân, literally "knower of grammar," from zabân-dasturgrammar + dân agent noun and present stem of dânestan, → know.

grammatical
  دستور ِ زبانی، زبان-دستوری   
dastur-e zabâni, zabân-dasturi

Fr.: grammatical   

Of or relating to → grammar; conforming to standard usage.

From M.Fr. grammatical and directly from L. grammaticalis "of a scholar," from grammaticus "pertaining to → grammar."

Dastur-e zabâni, zabân-dasturidastur-e zabân, zabân-dastur, → grammar.

grammatical case
  کاته‌ی ِ زبان-دستوری   
kâte-ye zabân-dasturi

Fr.: cas grammatical   

An inflectional category, basically pertaing to nouns and pronoun, which marks their relationship with other parts of the sentence. sentence. → accusative case, → nominative case, → genitive case, → dative case, → ablative case, → vocative case, → imperative case.

grammatical; → case.

grand design spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ ِ فرساز   
kahkešân-e mârpic-e farsâz

Fr.: galaxie spirale parfaite   

A galaxy with prominent → arms that are clearly attached to the central → bulge or → bar spiraling continuously outward until they reach the edge of the visible disk. Some examples are: → Whirlpool galaxy (M51), M74 (NGC 628), and NGC 2997.

M.E. graunt, from O.Fr. grant, grand, from L. grandis "big, great," also "full-grown;" design, from M.E. designen, from L. designare "mark out, designate, appoint," from → de- "out" + signare "to mark," from signumsign; → spiral; → galaxy.

Kahkešân, → galaxy; mârpicspiral; farsâz, → perfect.

grand unified theory (GUT)
  نگره‌ی ِ یگانش ِ بزرگ   
negare-ye yegâneš-e bozorg (#)

Fr.: théorie de la grande unification   

Any physical theory that unites the strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions at high energy. It is hoped that GUTs can ultimately be extended to incorporate gravity. → theory of everything.

M.E. graunt, from O.Fr. grant, grand, from L. grandis "big, great," also "full-grown;" unified, p.p. of → unify; → theory.

Negâré, → theory; yegâneš, verbal noun of yegânestan, → unify; bozorggreat.

granulation
  دانه‌بندی   
dâne-bandi

Fr.: granulation   

The mottled appearance of the solar → photosphere, caused by → convective cells, resembling → granules, which rises from the interior of the Sun. Each granule has a mean size of about 1,000 km and an upward velocity of about 0.5 km/sec. Granules are separated by intergranular walls about 400 K colder. They emerge from the fragments of the preceding granules and their lifetimes are about 20 minutes.

From → granule + -ation a combination of -ate and -ion, used to form nouns from stems in -ate.

Dâne-bandi, from dâné, → grain, + bandi verbal noun of bastan, vastan "to bind, shut;" O.Pers./Av. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind).

granule
  دانول   
dânul

Fr.: granule   

A tiny grain; a small particle.
One of the convective cells constituting the solar → granulation.

From L.L. granulum "small grain," from → gain + → -ule.

grape
  انگور   
angur (#)

Fr.: raisin   

The edible, pulpy, smooth-skinned berry or fruit that grows in clusters on vines of the genus Vitis, and from which wine is made (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. grape "bunch of grapes, grape."

Angur "grape," from Mid.Pers. angur "grape;" cf. Khwarazmi 'nkyδ, Yidgha agidro, Munji aglero, Shughni angûrδ, related to quré "unripe grape."

graph
  نگاره   
negâré (#)

Fr.: diagramme, graphique, graphe   

1) A visual representation of data that displays the relationship among variables, usually cast along X and Y axes.
2) In → graph theory, a graph G = (V, E) consists of a set of objects V called vertices and a set E which contains unordered pairs of distinct elements of V called edges.

Short for graphic (formula), from L. graphicus "of painting or drawing," from Gk. graphikos "able to draw or paint," from graph(ein) "to draw, write" + -ikos, → ic.

Negâré, from negâr "picture, figure" (verb negârdan, negâštan "to paint"), from prefix ne-, O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; into," → ni-, + gâr, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base *kwer- "to do, to make").

graph theory
  نگره‌ی ِ نگاره   
negare-ye negâré

Fr.: théorie des graphes   

The branch of → mathematics dealing with → graphs. In particular, it involves the ways in which sets of points (→ vertex) can be connected by lines or arcs (→ edge).

graph; → theory.

<< < -ge Gal Gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo Ger gla glu gra gra gra gra Gre gri gui > >>