gâhšomâr-e Gregori (#)
Fr.: calendrier grégorien
A → solar calendar in which the year length is assumed to be 365.2425 solar days. It is now used as the civil calendar in most countries. The Gregorian calendar is a revision of the → Julian calendar instituted in a papal bull by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. The reason for the calendar change was to correct for drift in the dates of significant religious observations (primarily Easter) and to prevent further drift in the dates.
Named after Pope Gregory XIII (1502-1585), an Italian, born Ugo Boncompagni, Pope from 1572 to 1585, who ordered the reform of the Julian calendar; → calendar.
durbin-e Gregori, teleskop-e ~ (#)
Fr.: télescope de Gregory
A reflecting telescope in which the light rays are reflected from the primary mirror to a concave secondary mirror, from which the light is reflected back to the primary mirror and through the central hole behind the primary mirror. Compare with the → Cassegrain telescope, in which the secondary mirror is convex.
Named after the Scottish mathematician and astronomer James Gregory (1638-1675), who devised the telescope, but did not succeed in constructing it; → telescope.
Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit (GZK)
Fr.: limite de Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin
A theoretical limit of approximately 6 × 1019 → electron-volts for the energy of → cosmic rays above which they would lose energy in their interaction with the → cosmic microwave radiation background photons. Cosmic ray protons with these energies produce → pions on blackbody photons via the Δ resonance according to: γCMB + p → p + π0, or γCMB + p → n + π+, thereby losing a large fraction of their energy. These interactions would reduce the energy of the cosmic rays to below the GZK limit. Due to this phenomenon, → Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are absorbed within about 50 Mpc.
Named after Kenneth Greisen (1966), Physical Review Letters 16, 748 and Georgiy Zatsepin & Vadim Kuzmin (1966), Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters 4, 78; → limit.
1) A → grating of crossed bars; gridiron.
Shortening of gridiron "a utensil consisting of parallel metal bars on which to broil meat or other food," from M.E. griderne, from gridel, from O.Fr. gredil, gridil, from L. craticula "gridiron, small griddle," diminutive of cratis "wickerwork."
Šabâk, from Laki šowâk "a net woven from goat fleece used for carrying chaff or fruits like melon," variants šâvâk (Lori), šavak (Nahâvand).
Grinding, verbal noun of grind, from O.E. grindan, forgrindan "destroy by crushing," from P.Gmc. *grindanan (cf. Du. grenden), from PIE *ghrendh- "crushing" (cf. L. frendere "to crush, grind;" Gk. khondros "granule, groats").
Sâbeš, verbal noun of sâbidan, variants sâyidan, pasâvidan "to touch" (Khotanese sauy- "to rub;" Sogdian ps'w- "to touch;" Proto-Iranian *sau- "to rub").
A minor → complaint.
M.E. gripen, from O.E. gripan; cognate with Du. grijpen, Ger. griefen.
Gelé, → complain.
An optical dispersing device used in a spectrograph. It is a combination of a prism and a grating, in the sense that the grating is placed side by side to one surface of a small-angle prism.
Grism, from gr(ating) + (pr)ism.
Fr.: grain abrasif
Abrasive particles or granules, classified into predetermined sizes, typically of Silicon Carbide or Aluminum Oxide, used between the mirror and tile tool to grind the glass.
Grit, from O.E. greot "sand, dust, earth, gravel," from P.Gmc. *greutan "tiny particles of crushed rock" (cf. O.S. griot; O.N. grjot "rock, stone;" Ger. Grieß "grit, sand"); PIE base *ghreu- "to rub, pound, crush."
Šen "sand, grit."
kašâl (#), kašâlé (#)
Anatomy: The depression on either side of the front of the body between the thigh and the abdomen.
M.E. grynde "groin," originally "depression in the ground," from O.E. grynde "abyss," perhaps also "depression, hollow," related to → ground.
Kašâl, kašâlé, literally "side, edge, margin," cf. Dari Kermâni kašâr, Kermâni kešâl "side, edge," from kašidan "to draw, pull, trace, trail," → galaxy.
An instrument composed of a vertical staff and a horizontal cross with a plumb line at the end of each arm. It was used in ancient Roman empire to survey straight lines, squares, and rectangles.
From L. groma, gruma, from Gk. → gnomon, possibly through Etruscan.
Fr.: trait, sillon
Groove, from O.N. grod "pit," or M.Du. groeve "furrow, ditch," from P.Gmc. *grobo (cf. O.H.G. gruoba "ditch," Goth. groba "pit, cave," O.E. græf "ditch"), related to grave (n.).
Šiyâr "furrow, ploughed ground," from Av. karši-, karša- "furrow," karšuiiā "plowed (land)," related to Mod.Pers. kašidan/kešidan "to carry, draw, protract, trail, drag;" Mid.Pers. kešidan "to draw, pull;" from Av. karš- "to draw; to plow;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plough," karṣū- "furrow, trench;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to be in motion, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."
1) zamin; 2) zaminé (#)
Fr.: sol, terrain
1) The surface of the Earth; soil.
From O.E. grund "foundation, ground, surface of the earth," from P.Gmc. *grundus (cf. Du. grond, Ger. Grund "ground, soil, bottom").
1) Zamin, variant
zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;"
Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai
"on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus
"the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume);
PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth."
hâlat-e zaminé (#)
Fr.: état fondamental
The lowest energy state of an atom, molecule, or ion, when all electrons are in their lowest possible energy levels, i.e. not excited.
nepâheš az zamin
Fr.: observation au sol
An astronomical observation carried out using a telescope on Earth, as opposed to that from an orbiting satellite.
1) goruh (#); 2) goruhândan; goruhidan
Fr.: 1) groupe; 2) grouper; se grouper
1a) Any collection or assemblage of persons or things considered together or
regarded as belonging together; e.g.
→ Local Group of galaxies.
From Fr. groupe "cluster, group," from It. gruppo "cluster, packet, knot," likely from P.Gmc. *kruppa "round mass, lump."
Goruh "group," from Mid.Pers. grôh "group, crowd."
negare-ye goruh (#)
Fr.: théorie des groupes
A branch of mathematics concerned with structures called → groups and the description of their properties. Group theory provides a powerful formal method of analyzing abstract and physical systems in which → symmetry is present. It has a very considerable use in physics, especially → quantum mechanics, notably in analyzing the → eigenstates of energy of a physical system.
Fr.: vitesse de groupe
The act or process of uniting into groups.
Verbal noun of → group.
ruyidan (#), rostan (#)
To increase by natural development, as any living organism or part by assimilation of nutriment; increase in size or substance (Dictionary.com).
From M.E. growen, O.E. growan; cf. Du. groeien, O.H.G. grouwan; PIE base *ghre- "to grow, become green," from which is also derived grass.
Ruyidan, rostan "to grow," from Mid.Pers. rôditan, rustan "to grow;" Av. raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot," with fra- "to grow up, shoot forth;" cf. Skt. ruh- "to grow, develop, ascend, climb," rohati "grows," rudh- "to grow, sprout, shoot," rodhati "grows."
ruyeš (#), rist (#)