M.E. go(u)lf, from O.Fr. golfe, from It. golfo, from Gk. Gk. kolpos "bay, gulf of the sea," originally "bosom."
Xalij, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *garika-, from *gar- "to soak, moisten" (+ relation suffix -ika-, → -ics; notably the variant Tabari -ij, as in Yušij); cf. Gilaki *xal-, xâlə "stream, brook" (as in the stream names Cam.xâlə, Zât.xâlə, Hašu.xâlə, etc.), Tabari câl in Câlus (name of a river in Mâzandarân); Laki cal.ow "marsh;" Tabari kela, kila "stream;" Baluci kor "river;" Iranian rivers Kor (in the Fârs Province), Kârun and Karxé (both in Xuzestân); in classical Pers. literature kul, kul.âb "pond, reservoir," (prefixed far-) far.qar "a minor stream derived from a more considerable one; the bed of a river when almost dry, the small quantity of water remaining in such a river" (Steingass); âqâridan, âqeštan, farqâridan "to moisten, wet, macerate;" Dari Yazd qeriz "saliva;" Râvar, Bardsir, Kerman geriz "saliva;" Laki xur "swamp;" Tâti xer "cloud;" Bandare Jâski gerâh "moisture;" Ossetic I. qaryn/qard "to permeate, seep through (of liquid);" Shughni (prefixed) ažär- "to soak, wet;" Roshani (prefixed) nižêr-/nižêrd "to soak, wet;" Skt. gal- "to drip;" O.H.G. quellan "to well, to gush;" Ger. Quell, Quelle "source." Note that, according to the classical Pers. dictionary Borhân-e Qâte' compiled in India (17th century), xalij is a Pers. word and not Arabic. Similarly, M.A. Emâm-Shushtari, in his "Dictionary of Persian Words in Arabic," remarks that the Arabic root XLJ is irrelevant to the "gulf" sense.
A trench or ravine worn away by running water in the earth.
Gully, a variant of M.E. golet "water channel," from O.Fr. goulet, dim. of goule "throat, neck," from L. gula; cf. Mod.Pers. galu "throat," geri, geribân "collar," gerivé "low hill," gardan "neck;" Mid.Pers. galôg, griv "throat," gartan "neck," Av. grīvā- "neck;" Skt. gala- "throat, neck," Gk. bora "food;" L. vorare "to devour;" PIE base *gwer- "to swallow, devour."
Âbkand, literally "dug by water," from âb "water" (Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O. Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river," O.Prus. ape "stream," Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook") + kand, contraction of kandé, p.p. of kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan "to dig;" O.Pers. kan- "to dig," akaniya- "it was dug;" Av. kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out" (→ ex- for prefix us-); cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs").
Fr.: nébuleuse de Gum
An immense emission nebula about 40° across lying toward the southern constellations → Vela and → Puppis. It contains the → Vela pulsar and the → Vela supernova remnant, and seems to be created by an outburst of ionizing radiation that accompanied a → supernova explosion.
Named after its discoverer, the Australian astronomer Colin Stanley Gum (1924-1960); → nebula.
Fr.: effet Gunn-Peterson
The continuum trough observed in the spectra of high redshift quasars (z> 6) at the blue wing of their Lyman-alpha emission line (1216 Å). It is explained by the scattering of the radiation of the quasar by intergalactic neutral hydrogen on the line of sight. Because of the cosmological expansion, the quasar line is redshifted with respect to the continuum trough. The Gunn-Peterson opacity increases rapidly with redshift. It is interpreted as a strong evidence for the reionization of the Universe around z = 6.
After James E. Gunn and Bruce A. Peterson who predicted the effect in 1965; → effect.
The first → gravitational wave event detected in association with an → electromagnetic counterpart. On 2017 August (12h 41m 04s UTC) the gravitational event GW170817 was observed by → Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the → Virgo interferometer. 1.7 seconds later the Earth-orbiting Fermi and INTEGRAL observatories detected a → gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A). The gravitational wave data were used to attribute the event to the → merger of → neutron stars in a → neutron star binary system. The component masses range 1.17-1.60 → solar masses (Abbott et al., 2017, Physical Review Letters 119, 161101). The source was rapidly localized to a region of 31 deg2 using data from all three detectors. The analysis of the gravitational wave data suggested a distance of 40 (± 8) Mpc for the event. 45 min after sunset in Chile and 10 hours after the GW trigger, astronomers (Coulter et al. 2017, GCN 21529) located the → electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational wave event in the → lenticular galaxy (S0) → NGC 4993 offset 10.6 arcseconds north-east from center (corresponding to 2.0 kpc). Follow-up observations revealed an optical-infrared → transient known as → kilonova that lasted a few days, as predicted by models of neutron star merger. Kilonova is powered by the synthesis of large amounts of very heavy elements via rapid neutron capture (the → r-process). The merger ejected 0.03-0.05 → solar masses, including high opacity → lanthanides. Kilonovae are believed to be cradles of production of rare → chemical elements like → gold and → platinum (Pian et al., 2017, Nature doi:10.1038/nature24298).
GW, short for → gravitational wave; 170817 detection date, 2017 August 17.
From L. gyratus, p.p. of gyrare "to turn around," from L. gyrus "circle," from Gk. gyros "circle, ring;" PIE base *geu- "to bend, curve."
Leridan, from Lori, Laki lerr "revolving, whirling, turning" (lerr dâye "to make rotate, to stir a liquid," lerese "to rotate, turn"), variant xer "circular, round" (xer dâyen "to make turn"), maybe cognate with Gk. gyros "circle, ring," as above; variants in Mod.Pers. lulé "rolled-up, wound-up; tube," lulé kardan "to roll up, wind up;" Hamadâni lul "spiral, twisted;" Kurd. lûl "curly (of hair)," garda-lûl, ~ lûlân "wind that whirls dust."
An open-source (adiabatic/non-adiabatic) pulsation code that calculates the oscillation frequencies of an input stellar model. The code is based on a "Magnus Multiple Shooting" scheme, which is a numerical technique to solve boundary value problems. This is done by subdividing the possible solution space into sub-intervals and solving the pulsation equation in these sub-intervals, assuming continuity conditions. GYRE is integrated into → Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA)'s → asteroseismologic module (Townsend & Teitler, 2013, MNRAS 435, 3406).
GYRE, of unknown origin.
From Gk. gyros "circle, ring;" PIE base *geu- "to bend, curve."
From leridan, → gyrate.
Fr.: fréquence gyromagnétique
The frequency with which an electron or other charged particle executes spiral gyrations in moving across a magnetic field.
Same as → Larmor radius.
A device for measuring or maintaining orientation. Consisting of a rotating wheel so mounted that its axis can turn freely in certain or all directions, it is based on the principle of conservation of angular momentum. In physics this is also known as gyroscopic inertia or rigidity in space.
Fr.: limite de Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin
Same as → Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff.