Fr.: courant galvanique
The direct electric current that flows between metals or conductive nonmetals in a → galvanic couple.
1) The production of electricity from a chemical reaction.
From Fr. galvanisme, after Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), the Italian physiologist, who demonstrated (1790) muscular action due to contact with dissimilar metals.
The coating of steel or iron with → zinc, either by immersion in a bath of molten zinc or by electrolytic deposition from a solution of zinc sulfate, to give protection against corrosion.
Verbal noun of → galvanize.
1) To coat a metal with → zinc by dipping into molten zinc
or by electrolytic deposition.
From Fr. galvaniser, from galvanisme, → galvanism.
Galvano-, from → galvanism.
An instrument for measuring or detecting small → direct currents, usually by the mechanical reaction between the magnetic field of the current and that of a magnet.
A process used for covering an object with a thin layer of metal by electrochemical means.
→ galvano- + -plasty a suffix meaning "molding, formation, surgical repair, plastic surgery," from Gk. -plastia, from plastos "molded, formed," from plassein "to mold."
Gâlvânopuši, from gâlvâno-, → galvano-, + puši "covering, coating," from pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").
1) An amusement or pastime.
M.E. gamen. O.E. gaman "game, joy, fun, amusement;" cf. O.Fris. game "joy, glee," O.N. gaman, O.H.G. gaman "sport, merriment," D. gamen, Sw. gamman.
Bâzi, from Mid.Pers. wâzig "game, play," related to bâzidan "to play," bâxtan/bâz- "to loose (in game);" Proto-Ir. *uāz- "to play, contend;" cf. Skt. vāja- "contest, war, gain, reward" (Cheung 2007).
1) The third letter of the Greek alphabet (γ, Γ).
The third letter of the Gk. alphabet, from Gk. gamma, from Phoenician gimel.
Fr.: γ Cephei
A bright, third → magnitude (3.22) → giant star of → spectral type K1, also called → Errai, HR 8974, HIP 116727, and HD 222404. γCephei has a → surface temperature of 4920 K a mass of 1.40 Msun, a → luminosity 10.6 solar, and a radius 4.8 solar. Its distance is estimated to be 45 → light-years. γ Cephei will become the → Pole Star in about 2,000 years. γ Cephei has a low mass → companion (B), a main → main sequence star of spectral type M4 V with a mass of 0.4 Msun. It orbits the → primary star every 67.5 years. An → extrasolar planet. (γ Cephe b) has been discovered orbiting the main star.
Fr.: γ Cygni
The star → Sadr.
tabâhi-ye gâmâ (#)
Fr.: désintégration gamma
Fr.: mécanisme γ
A process which reinforces the → kappa mechanism in a → partial ionization zone. Because the temperature in the partial ionization zone is lower than in the adjacent stellar layers, heat tends to flow into the zone during compression, prompting further ionization.
partowhâ-ye gâmmâ (#)
Fr.: rayons gamma
axtaršenâsi-ye partowhâ-ye gâmmâ (#)
Fr.: astronomie en rayons gamma
gamma-ray burst (GRB)
belk-e partowhâ-ye gâmmâ
Fr.: sursaut de rayons gamma
An intense discharge of → gamma rays, which range in duration from tenth of a second to tens of seconds and occur from sources widely distributed over the sky. The radio wave → afterglow from the → burst can last more than a year, making long-term observations of the sources possible. The favored hypothesis is that they are produced by a relativistic jet created by the merger of two → compact objects (specifically two → neutron stars or a neutron star and a → black hole). Mergers of this kind are also expected to create significant quantities of neutron-rich radioactive species, whose decay should result in a faint → transient, known as a → kilonova, in the days following the burst. Indeed, it is speculated that this mechanism may be the predominant source of stable → r-process elements in the Universe. Recent calculations suggest that much of the kilonova energy should appear in the → near-infrared spectral range, because of the high optical opacity created by these heavy r-process elements (Tanvir et al., 2017, Nature 500, 547).
belkvar-e partow-e gâmmâ
Fr.: source à sursaut gamma
xan-e partowhâ-ye gâmma
Fr.: source de rayons gamma
1) An astronomical object that emits → gamma rays.
Fr.: γ2 Velorum
The closest → Wolf-Rayet star, located at 336 → parsecs. Also known as HR 3207, HD 68273, and WR 111. γ2 Velorum is composed of a → WC8 component in a → close binary system with an → O star in a 78.5 day orbit (see, e.g., Lamberts et al., 2017, arXiv: 1701.01124).
varqe-ye Gâmof (#)
Fr.: barrière de Gamow
In nuclear physics, a potential barrier near the surface of the nucleus that inhibits the release of alpha particles.
Gamow, after George Gamow (originally Georgiy Antonovich Gamov), the Ukrainian born theoretical physicist and cosmologist, who discovered quantum tunneling; → barrier.