sâat-e šeni (#)
A device for measuring time; it consists of a glass container having two compartments from the uppermost of which a quantity of sand runs in an hour into the lower one through a narrow tube.
Sâat-e šeni, from sâat, → hour + šeni, adj. of šen "sand."
1) A building in which people live.
M.E. h(o)us, from O.E. hus "dwelling, shelter, house;" cf. O.N. hus; Du. huis; Ger. Haus).
Xâné "house," from Mid.Pers. xânak, xân, xôn; cf. L. cunae "cradle;" Gk. kome "village;" Pers. Aftari dialect kiye "house, home;" PIE base *kei- "bed; to lie, to settle; beloved" (other cognates: O.E. ham "dwelling, house, village;" E. home; Ger. Heim; L. civis "townsman;" Fr. cité; E. city; Skt. śiva- "auspicious, dear").
parjâ zadan, parjâyidan
1) To remain in one place in the air by rapidly beating the wings.
M.E. hoveren, frequentative of hoven "hover, tarry, linger," of unknown origin.
Parjâ zadan (on the model of darjâ zadan "to march in the same place, moving one's legs up and down without going forward"), from par zadan darjâ "to beat the wings at the same place," from par zadan "to beat the wings," from par "wing, → feather," zadan, → beat, + darjâ "in the same place," from dar, → in, + jâ, → place.
A vehicle capable of travelling over land or water on a cushion of air.
Fr.: vol stationnaire
The act of one who hovers.
Fr.: état de Hoyle
An → excited state in the
→ triple alpha process leading to the production of
the most abundant → isotope of → carbon.
The existence of this state is of extreme astrophysical importance concerning the
→ nucleosynthesis of 12C in stellar
In honor of the British astrophysicist Fred Hoyle (1915-2001), who predicted this state in 1953 (Hoyle et al. 1953, Physical Review 92, 1095); it was discovered by W. A. Fowler in 1957; → state.
Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953), the American astronomer who provided the first evidence of the expansion of the Universe in 1929; → Hubble's law.
radebandi-ye Hubble (#)
Fr.: classification de Hubble
The classification of galaxies according to their visual appearance into four basic types suggested by E. Hubble: → ellipticals (E), → spirals (S), → barred spirals (SB), and → irregulars (Ir). Later on a separate class of → lenticulars (S0) was appended as an intermediate type between ellipticals and spirals. The sequence starts with round elliptical galaxies (E0). Flatter galaxies are arranged following a number which is calculated from the ratio (a - b)/a, where a and b are the major and minor axes as measured on the sky. Ellipticals are divided into eight categories (E0, E1, ..., E7). Beyond E7 a clear disk is apparent in the lenticular (S0) galaxies. The sequence then splits into two parallel branches of disk galaxies showing spiral structure: ordinary spirals, S, and barred spirals, SB. The spiral and barred types are subdivided into Sa, Sb, Sc, and SBa, SBb, SBc, respectively. Along the sequence from Sa to Sc, the central bulge becomes smaller, while the spiral arms become more and more paramount. The original, erroneous idea that such arrangement of the galaxies might represent an evolutionary sequence led to the ellipticals being referred to as early-type galaxies, and the spirals and Irr I irregulars as late-type galaxies. See also → dwarf galaxy, → dwarf elliptical galaxy, → dwarf spheroidal galaxy.
pâyâ-ye Hubble (#)
Fr.: constante de Hubble
The → Hubble parameter for the present epoch. It is the constant of proportionality between the → recession velocities of galaxies and their distances from each other. The latest determinations using the → Hubble Space Telescope observations of → Cepheids give H0 = 72 ± 8 km s-1 Mpc-1 (W. L. Freedman et al., 2001, ApJ 553, 47, arXiv:astro-ph/0012376), the → WMAP observations yield 70.4 ± 1.3 km s-1 Mpc-1 (N. Jarosik et al., 2011, ApJS 192, 14, arXiv:1001.4744), and the → Planck Satellite observations give 67.3 ± 1.2 km s-1 Mpc-1 (Planck Collaboration, 2014, A&A 571, A16, arXiv:1303.5076). More recently, the Hubble constant was derived by a team of astronomers, using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, with a 2.4% accuracy (Adam G. Reiss et al., 2016, arXiv:1604.01424). The new value, 73.2 km s-1 Mpc-1, suggests that the Universe is expanding between five and nine percent faster than previously calculated. The → Hubble law is only applicable for large distances (> 20 Mpc), when the proper motions of galaxies in groups and clusters cannot confuse the recession due to expansion.
Hubble Deep Field (HDF)
meydân-e žarf-e Hubble (#)
Fr.: champ profond de Hubble
An image of a small region in the constellation → Ursa Major, based on the results of a series of observations by the → Hubble Space Telescope. The image was assembled from 342 separate exposures taken over ten consecutive days between December 18 and December 28, 1995. It covers an area 144 arcseconds across.
nemudâr-e Hubble (#)
Fr.: diagramme de Hubble
Fr.: distance de Hubble
Fr.: flot de Hubble
The general outward motion of galaxies resulting from the → expansion of the Universe.
Fr.: loi de Hubble
→ Hubble's law.
Fr.: longueur de Hubble
Fr.: paramètre de Hubble
The rate pf change of the → cosmic scale factor: H(t) = (dR/dt)/R. The Hubble parameter is a time-dependent quantity and therefore is not constant. The → Hubble constant is the Hubble parameter measured today.
šo'â'-e Hubble (#)
Fr.: rayon de Hubble
Fr.: séquence de Hubble
A classification scheme in which galaxies are ordered into a sequence based on their morphology. Same as the → Hubble classification.
Hubble Space Telescope (HST)
durbin-e fazâyi-ye Hubble, teleskop-e ~ ~ (#)
Fr.: télescope spatial de Hubble
A telescope of 2.4 m in diameter, a joint NASA and ESA project, launched in 1990 into a low-Earth orbit 600 km above the ground. It was equipped with a collection of several science instruments that worked across the entire optical spectrum (from infrared, through the visible, to ultraviolet light). During its lifetime Hubble has become one of the most important science projects ever.
zamân-e Hubble (#)
Fr.: temps de Hubble
An estimate for the age of the Universe by presuming that the Universe has always expanded at the same rate as it is expanding today. It is the inverse of the → Hubble constant: tH = 1/H0. Also called the Hubble age or the Hubble period.