An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 465
hybrid eclipse
  خورگرفت ِ دورگه   
xorgereft-e doragé (#)

Fr.: éclipse solaire hybride   

A rare type of solar eclipse where at some places the eclipse is annular while at other places it appears total. This duality comes about when the vertex of the Moon's umbral shadow pierces Earth's surface at some points, but falls short of the planet along other portions of the eclipse path. Hybrid eclipses are also known as → annular-total eclipses. In most cases, hybrid eclipses begin as annular, transform into total, and then revert back to annular before the end of their track. In rare instances, a hybrid eclipse may begin annular and end total, or vice versa (F. Espenak, NASA).

hybrid; → eclipse.

hybrid pulsator
  تپگر ِ دورگه   
tapgar-e doragé

Fr.: pulsateur hybride   

A star on the upper → main sequence which simultaneously exhibits low-order pressure mode (→ p mode) and high-order gravity mode (→ g mode) characteristic of β Cephei and → slowly pulsating B stars, respectively. Examples include: γ Pegasi, HD 43317, and HD 50230.

hybrid; → pulsator.

hybrid star
  ستاره‌ی ِ دورگه   
sétâre-ye doragé

Fr.: étoile hybride   

A hypothetical object composed of a → quark matter in the central regions, enveloped by ordinary → hadronic matter.

hybrid; → star.

  هیدر-، آب-   
hidr- (#), âb- (#)

Fr.: hydr-   



Fr.: Hydre   

1) The Water Serpent. The longest and largest constellation in the sky, stretching almost 7 hours of right ascension, and covering over 1300 square degrees, from → Canis Minor to → Libra. It lies south of → Cancer, → Leo, and → Virgo, and is best seen in the northern hemisphere during the months of February through May. Its brightest star is → Alphard. Abbreviation: Hya; Genitive: Hydrae.
2) The third satellite of → Pluto discovered in 2005 by astronomers using the → Hubble Space Telescope images. Also called Pluto III (P3). It has an estimated diameter of between 60 and 170 km and an → orbital period of 38.2 days. It orbits the → barycenter of the → Pluto-→ Charon system at a distance of about 65,000 km.

Hydra, from L. hydrus, from Gk. hydra "water-snake;" cf. Av. udra- "otter;" Skt. udrá- "otter;" O.H.G. ottar "otter;" O.E. otor, ottor; Ger. Otter; E. otter; Lith. udras, udra "otter;" akin to → water. In Gk. mythology, this constellation represents the gigantic nine-head water-snake which haunted the swamps of Lerna. Herakles was sent to destroy her as one of his twelve labours, but for each of her heads that he decapitated, two more sprang forth. So with the help of Iolaos, Herakles applied burning brands to the severed stumps, cauterizing the wounds and preventing regeneration. In the battle he also crushed a giant crab (→ Cancer) beneath his heel which had come to assist Hydra.

Hudrâ, from Gk. hydra, as above. → Hydrus (آبمار)

Hydra I cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ هودرا   
xuše-ye Hudrâ

Fr.: amas de l'Hydre   

A relatively poor → galaxy cluster at about 50 Mpc containing a pair of bright galaxies near its centre: NGC 3309 and NGC 3311. Also known as Abell 1060 (→ Abell catalog), Hydra I is the prototype of an evolved and dynamically relaxed cluster, being dominated by early-type galaxies and having a regular core shape.

Hydra; → cluster.

  هیدریدن، آبیدن   
hidridan, âbidan (#)

Fr.: hydrater   

To combine chemically with → water.

From → hydr-, → hydro- + -ate a verbal suffix.

Hidridan, from Gk. → hydr-, âbidan, from âb, → water, + -idan infinitive suffix.

  هیدریده، آبیده   
hidridé, âbidé (#)

Fr.: hydraté   

Combined with → water molecules.

P.p./adj. of → hydrate.

  هیدرش، آبش   
hidreš, âbeš (#)

Fr.: hydratation   

The process of combining with → water.

Verbal noun of → hydrate.

hidrolic (#)

Fr.: hydraulique   

Operated, moved, or employing water or other liquids in motion.

From Gk. hydraulikos organon "water organ," from → hydro- "water" + aulos "musical instrument, hollow tube."

hydraulic ram
  قوچ ِ هیدرولیک   
quc-e hidrolik

Fr.: bélier hydraulique   

A device, which uses the energy of water flowing by gravity intermittently through a pipe to force a small portion of the water to a height greater than that of the source.

hydraulic; → ram.

hidrur (#)

Fr.: hydrure   

A binary compound containing hydrogen and another element, such as CH, OH, and HCl.

hydr- + -ide.

Hidrur, loan from Fr.

  هیدرو-، هیدر-، آب-   
hidro- (#), hidr- (#), âb- (#)

Fr.: hydro-   

A combining form (hydr- before a vowel) originally meaning "water," but also "liquid, gas." In chemical nomenclature, often denotes a compound of hydrogen.

Gk. hydro-, combining form of hydor "water," cognate with Skt. udá- "water;" Khotanese ūtcā "water;" Hittite uātar; L. unda "wave;" O.C.S., Rus. voda; Lith. vanduo; P.Gmc. *watar (cf. Du. water; O.H.G. wazzar; Ger. Wasser; Goth. wato; O.E. wæter; E. water); from PIE base *wed- "water; wet."

Hidro-, loanword from Gk., as above. Âb- "water," from Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O. Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river," O.Prus. ape "stream," Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook."

hidrokarbon (#)

Fr.: hydrocarbure   

Any of a class of compounds containing only → hydrogen and → carbon. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds found in coal, petroleum, natural gas, and plant life. They are used as fuels, solvents, and as raw materials for numerous products such as dyes, pesticides, and plastics. Petroleum is a mixture of several hydrocarbons.

hydro- + → carbon.

hydrocyanic acid
  اسید سیانیدریک   
asid siyânidrik (#)

Fr.: acide cyanhydrique   

Same as → hydrogen cyanide.

hydro-; → cyano-; → acid.


Fr.: hydrodynamique   

Of or pertaining to → hydrodynamics.

hydro- + → dynamic.

hydrodynamic equation
  هموگش ِ هیدروتوانیک   
hamugeš-e hirdrotavânik

Fr.: équation hydrodynamique   

Fluid mechanics: A → partial differential equation which describes the motion of an element of fluid subjected to different forces such as pressure, gravity, and frictions.

hydrodynamic; → equation.

hydrodynamic equilibrium
  ترازمندی ِ هیدروتوانیک   
tarâzmandi-ye hirdrotavânik

Fr.: équilibre hydrodynamique   

The state of a star when all its internal forces are in equilibrium. The main forces are gas pressure, radiation pressure due to thermonuclear fusion that tends to disrupt the star, and the opposing gravity. → hydrostatic equilibrium.

hydrodynamic; → equilibrium.


Fr.: hydrodynamique   

The branch of physics dealing with the motion, energy, and pressure of neutral → fluids.

hydro- + → dynamics.

hydrogen (H)
hidrožen (#)

Fr.: hydrogène   

The most abundant → chemical element in the Universe. Symbol H; → atomic number 1; → atomic weight 1.00794; → melting point -259.14°C; → boiling point -252.87°C. It was discovered by the English physicist Henry Cavendish in 1766, who called it the "inflammable air."
See also:
antihydrogen, → atomic hydrogen, → heavy hydrogen, → hydrogen bond, → hydrogen burning, → hydrogen coma, → hydrogen cyanide, → hydrogen fusion, → hydrogen ion, → hydrogen line, → hydrogen shell burning, → hydrogenate, → hydrogenation, → hydrogenize, → ionized hydrogen region, → metallic hydrogen, → molecular hydrogen, → neutral hydrogen, → orthohydrogen, → parahydrogen, → triatomic hydrogen molecular ion.

Hydrogen, from Fr. hydrogène, from Gk. hydro-, combining form of hydor "water" → hydro- + Fr. -gène "producing," → -gen; coined in 1787 by the French chemist Guyton de Morveau (1737-1816) because it forms water when exposed to oxygen.

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