-ik (#), -i (#)
A suffix forming adjectives from nouns and bearing several senses; adjective suffix of nouns ending in → -ics.
Suffix -ics, from -ic + plural suffix -s, from O.Fr. -ique, from L. -icus, Gk. -ikos; cf. O.E. -ig, from P.Gmc. *-iga, Ger. -ig.
Mod.Pers. -ik, from Mid.Pers. -ik or -ig, possibly from
the Av. noun and adjective forming suffix -ika, -ka, -aka (as in
ainika- "face," maršdika- "mercy," pairikā-
"fairy," kasvika- "trifling," kutaka- "small," ahmāka-
"ours"). In Mid.Pers. it had an extensive use for
creating adjectives of relation. Some examples:
A suffix used to form names of chemical compounds.
From -ide, extracted from Fr. → oxide.
Suffix denoting "family of," as in Andromedids, Aquarids, Bielids, Draconids, Geminids, Perseids, and so on.
Plural form of L. -id-, from -is, Gk. fem. patronymic suffix; or from L. -ides, from Gk. masc. patronymic suffix.
-iyân plural form of -i, suffix of relation, adjective + -y- euphonic infix (epenthesis) + -ân plural suffix, as in Haxâmanešiyân "Achaemenids," Sâsâniyân "Sasanides," and so on.
1a) A suffix forming the present participle of verbs, e.g. going, observing, writing.
1) M.E. -ing, -inde, from O.E. -ende;
cf. Ger. -end, Goth. -and, Gk. -on, L. -ans,
Skt. -ant, Av. -ant, Pers. -ân.
-bâvari, -gerâyi, -geravi, -gari, -mandi, etc.
A suffix denoting several senses, including state or condition, devotion or adherence, principle, doctrine, act, process.
From Gk. -ismos, -isma noun suffixes, often directly, often through L. -ismus, -isma, sometimes through Fr. -isme, Ger. -ismus (all ultimately from Gk.); → -ist.
-bâvar, -gerâ, -gerow, -gar, -mand, etc.
A suffix of nouns, often corresponding to verbs ending in -ize or nouns ending in → -ism, that is used to form an agent noun indicating adherence to a certain doctrine or custom, practicing a particular skill or profession, and so on.
From Fr. -iste, from L. -ista, from Gk. -istes.
-bâvar, from bâvar "belief;" Mid.Pers. wâbar "belief;"
Proto-Iranian *uar- "to choose; to convince; to believe;" cf.
Av. var- "to choose; to convince" varəna-, varana-
"conviction, faith;" O.Pers. v(a)r- "to choose; to convince;"
Skt. vr- "to choose," vara- "choosing."
1) A noun suffix denoting especially minerals, fossils, explosives, and
From Fr. -ite and directly from L. -ita, from Gk. -ites.
-i (#), -igi (#)
A suffix used to form abstract nouns expressing state, degree, or condition: metallicity, luminosity, periodicity, Gaussianity.
From M.E. -ite, from O.Fr. -ité, from L. -itas (-itat-), from -i- (thematic or, rarely, connective vowel) + -tas (-tat-), may be cognate with Av./Skt. -tāt (as in Av. uparatāt, Skt. uparátāt "supremacy," Av. haurvatāt, Skt. sarvátāt "completeness").
The suffix -igi, from -ig adj. suffix, variant of -ik,
→ -ic, + -i noun suffix.
1) A suffix occurring in names of → chemical elements,
such as → barium, → sodium,
→ titanium, → uranium.
Variant -um, as in → lanthanum.
From L. suffix forming certain neuter nouns (odium, tedium, colloquium; equilibrium, millennium; collegium, consortium), from Gk. -ion.
-i (#), -andé (#)
A suffix forming adjectives from verbs expressing tendency, disposition, function, connection, etc.: active; corrective; destructive; detective; passive; sportive.
From L. -ivus, but sometimes from O.Fr. -if.
-i and -andé current suffixes.
-idan (#), -astan (#), kardan (#)
A verb-forming suffix occurring originally in loanwords from Gk. that have entered English through L. or Fr.
From M.E. -isen, from O.Fr. -iser, from L.L. -izare, from Gk -izein.
-idan, -astan infinitive suffixes; kardan "to do, to make," auxiliary verb of compound verbs (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").
The seventeenth of Saturn's known satellites and the third largest. It is 1436 km across and revolves around Saturn at a mean distance of 3.5 million km with a period of 79 days. The most unique and perhaps most remarkable feature on Iapetus is a topographic ridge 13 km higher than the surrounding terrain, as discovered in the images obtained with Cassini spacecraft. The ridge extends at least 1300 km almost exactly parallel with Iapetus's equator.
Iapetus was one of the Titan gods, sons of Ouranos (Heaven) and Gaia (Earth). Discovered 25 October 1671 by Jean-Dominique Cassini.
Fr.: IC 10
A small → dwarf irregular galaxy belonging to the → Local Group, which is located in the constellation → Cassiopeia. IC 10 is about 2.3 million light-years distant and about 5,000 light-years across. With an absolute B magnitude of -16.5, IC 10 has an integrated luminosity that is comparable to that of the → Small Magellanic Cloud, although it is considerably smaller. Its → metallicity is roughly a factor of 2 higher than that of the SMC and in the same proportion smaller than → LMC's. Compared to other Local Group galaxies, IC 10 has a large population of newly formed stars that are massive and intrinsically very bright, especially → Wolf-Rayet stars. Its W-R star density is larger than those of the LMC and SMC. Moreover, the relative number of known → WC to → WN type Wolf-Rayet stars is unusually high, which is unexpected for IC 10's metallicity. IC 10 is also known to be unusual in having → H I gas that extends about 7 times the optical dimensions of the galaxy. IC 10 is the nearest example of a → starburst galaxy. IC 10 was discovered by the American astronomer Lewis A. Swift (1820-1913) in 1887.
Number 10 in the → Index Catalogue.
Fr.: IC 1613
A → dwarf irregular galaxy (also called Caldwell 51) located in the constellation → Cetus. IC 1613 is a member of the → Local Group of galaxies and has a → morphological classification of IBm (Irregular Barred, → Magellanic type galaxy). IC 1613 has a very → low surface brightness and a very low → dust content. It lies just over 2.38 ± 0.07 million → light-years away from us. IC 1613's distance is known to a remarkably high precision, partly due to the unusually low levels of dust lying both within the galaxy and along the line of sight from the → Milky Way. Moreover, the galaxy hosts a number of → Cepheid variables and → RR Lyrae variables which can be used to precisely determine distances. It was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906.
IC, short for → Index Catalogue.
Fr.: IC 434
A bright → emission nebula running north to south near → Alnitak, the eastern star of → Orion's Belt. It is the bright background nebula against which the famous dark region called the → Horsehead Nebula stands out.
IC, → Index Catalogue.
1) The solid form of water; it is found in the atmosphere
as snow crystals, hail, ice pellets, etc., and on the
Earth's surface in forms such as frost, rime, glaze,
glacier ice, etc.
Ice, from O.E. is "ice," from P.Gmc. *isa-; cf. O.N. iss, O.Fris. is, Du. ijs, Ger. Eis. Cognate with Pers. yax, as below.
Yax, from Av. aexa- "ice, frost," isav-, isu- "icy, chilly;" cf. Sarikoli (Pamir dialect) īš "cold;" P.Gmc. *isa-, as above.
Fr.: accrétion de glace
Meteo.: The process by which a layer of ice builds up on solid objects that are exposed to freezing precipitation or to supercooled fog or cloud droplets.
asr-e yax (#)
Fr.: âge de glace
A major interval of geologic time during which extensive ice sheets (continental → glaciers) formed over many parts of the world. There have been at least five significant ice ages in Earth's history, with approximately a dozen epochs of glacial expansion occurring in the past 1 million years. The last one ran from about 75,000 to 15,000 years ago.