An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -ic ice ide ima ima imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf inh inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv iod ion iro iso iso iso > >>

Number of Results: 654
ice crystal
  بلور یخ   
bolur-e yax

Fr.: cristal de glace   

A tiny particle of ice within which → water molecules are all lined up in a precise → crystalline structure. Ice crystals come in various shapes including needles, → dendrites, hexagonal columns, and → platelet. If the temperature decreases the water molecules can crystallize, arranging themselves around the suspended impurities such as dust particles. See also → snow crystal.

ice; → crystal.

ice giant
  غولپیکر ِ یخی   
qulpeykar-e yaxi

Fr.: géante de glace   

A member of the lesser mass group of → gas giants. Ice giants contain a higher quantity of materials that form ices at low temperatures, such as → water, → methane, and → ammonia. There are two ice giants in the Solar System, → Uranus and → Neptune.

ice; → giant.

ice house
yaxcâl (#)

Fr.: glacière   

A building for storing ice throughout the year, mainly used prior to the invention of the refrigerator.

ice; → house.

Yaxcâl, literally "a pit of ice," but "any place or vessel in which ice is kept," from yax, → ice, + câl "pit, → hole."

ice point
  نقطه‌ی ِ یخ   
noqte-ye yax (#)

Fr.: point de congélation   

The temperature at which a mixture of air-saturated pure water and pure ice may exist in equilibrium at a pressure of one standard atmosphere.

ice; → point.

  یخ‌بِرگ، کوه ِ یخ   
yaxberg, kuh-e yax (#)

Fr.: iceberg   

A large mass of floating or stranded ice that has broken away from a glacier; usually more than 5 m above sea level.

Iceberg, half Anglicization, half adoption of Du. ijsberg "ice mountain," from ijs, → ice, + berg "mountain" (cf. Ger. Eisberg, Sw. isberg), from P.Gmc. *bergaz; cf. M.H.G. berc, O.H.G. berg "mountain;" cognate with Pers. boland, borz, berg, as below; PIE base *bheregh- "high, elevated."

Yaxberg, from yax, → ice, + berg "mountain, hill," in Laki dialect, related to Pers. boland "high," variants bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. & E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg); PIE base *bhergh- "high."


Fr.: icone   

1) An image; a representation.
2) A representation or picture of a sacred or sanctified Christian personage, traditionally used and venerated in the Eastern Church.
3) A person or thing regarded as a symbol of a belief, nation, community, or cultural movement.
4) Computers: A pictorial representation of a facility available on a computer system, that enables the facility to be activated by means of a screen cursor rather than by a textual instruction (

From Gk. eikon "likeness, image, portrait; a semblance;" in philosophy, "an image in the mind," related to eikenai "be like, look like," from PIE *weik- "to be like."

Zodiš, variant of Mid.Pers. uzdês "icon; image; idol," from uz-, → ex-, + dês, Av. daēs- "to show;" cognate with Gk. deiknumai "to show;" L. dicere "to utter, say, proclaim;" N.H.G. zeigen "to say;" O.E. têon "to annoince;" PIE *deik- "to show, point out; announce."

  یخی، یخزده   
yaxi, yaxzade

Fr.: glacé, glacial   

Made of, covered with, or containing → ice.

ice + an English suffix of adjectives denoting "characterized by or inclined to."


Fr.: idée   

A thought, conception, or notion existing in the mind as a result of mental understanding, awareness, or activity. See also → thought, → concept.

Idea, from L. idea "idea," pre-Platonic Gk. idea "form, semblance, nature, fashion," in Plato "a timeless, universal archetype of existents; ideal prototype," literally "look, form," from idein "to see," from PIE *wid-es-ya-, suffixed form of base *weid- "to know, to see;" cf. Pers. bin- "to see" (present stem of didan); Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know."

Miné "idea," related to Pers. man "disposition, temperament, greatness of soul," minu "heaven, paradise," also equivalent to Ger. Geist in recent philosophical translations, došman "enemy," pašimân "penitent, regretful," pežmân "sad, mournful," šâdmân "joyful, cheerful, pleased," ârmân "desire; → ideal;" dialectal (Šuštar) mana "(he) thinks, imagines," (Tarq-e Natanz) môna "to imagine, suppose;" Mid.Pers. mênidan "to think, consider," mên "thought, idea," mênišn "thought, thinking, mind, disposition," mênitâr "thinker," mênôg "spiritual, immaterial, heavenly," from Av. man- "to think," mainyeite "he thinks," manah- "mind, thinking, thought; purpose, intention," mainyu- "mind, mentality, mental force, inspiration," traditionally translated as "spirit," Angra Mainyu "hostile mentality" (Mod.Pers. Ahriman); O.Pers. maniyaiy "I think," Ardumaniš- (proper noun) "upright-minded," Haxāmaniš- (proper noun, Hellenized Achaemenes, founder of the Achaemenian dynasty) "having the mind of a friend;" cf. Sogdian mân "mind;" Skt. man- "to think," mánye "I think," manyate "he thinks," mánas- "intelligence, understanding, conscience;" Gk. mainomai "to be angry," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet;" L. mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea;" Goth. muns "thought," munan "to think;" Ger. Minne "love," originally "loving memory;" O.E. gemynd "memory, thinking, intention;" PIE base *men- "to think, mind; spiritual activity."

  ۱) آرمان، مینه‌وار؛ ۲) آرمانی، مینه‌ای، مینه‌وار   
1) (n.) ârmân (#), minevâr; 2) (adj.) ârmâni (#), mineyi, minevâr

Fr.: idéal   

1) (n.) A standard of perfection, beauty, or excellence.
Math.: A subset of a ring that is closed under addition and multiplication by any element of the ring.
2) (adj.) Existing only in the imagination; not real or actual.
Conforming exactly to an ideal, law, or standard; perfect. → ideal gas.

M.E. ydeall, from L.L. idealis "existing in idea," from L. → idea.

Ârmân "ideal" in Mod.Pers., traditionally "desire; hope; grief," variants armân, urmân, prefixed from mân, "thought, mind," → idea. The first element may be related to Av. armaē- "in peace, still; quietly;" PIE base *er[ə]- "to be still" (cf. Skt. īrmā (adv.) "quiet, still, being in the same place;" Gk. erôé "calm, peace;" O.H.G. rouwa "rest"), as in Av. armaē.šad- "sitting quietly," armaē.štā- "standing still, stagnant." Therefore, Pers. ârmân may be related to Av. *armaē.manah- (PIE *ermen-) "thought in peace, quiet mind."
Mineyi, minevâr, adj. from miné, → idea.

ideal fluid
  شاره‌ی ِ آرمانی، ~ مینه‌وار   
šâre-ye ârmâni, ~ minevâr

Fr.: fluide idéal   

An fluid which has no internal friction or → viscosity, and no → resistivity as well if the fluid is a plasma.

ideal; → fluid.

ideal gas
  گاز ِ آرمانی، ~ ِ مینه‌وار   
gâz-e ârmâni, ~-e minevâr

Fr.: gaz idéal   

Theoretical gas assumed to consist of perfectly elastic molecules of negligible volume and mutual attraction force. Also called → perfect gas.

ideal; → gas.

ideal gas law
  قانون ِ گاز ِ آرمانی، ~ ~ مینه‌وار   
qânun-e gâz-e ârmâni, ~ ~ minevâr

Fr.: loi des gaz parfaits   

An → equation of state that relates pressure (P), temperature (T), and volume (V) of an ideal or → perfect gas: PV = nRT, where n is the number of → moles of gas present and R is the → universal gas constant. Equivalently: PV = NkT, where N is the number of atoms of gas present and k is → Boltzmann's constant.

ideal; → gas; → law.

ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
  مغنات-و-هیدروتوانیک ِ آرمانی، ~ مینه‌وار   
meqnâtohidrotavânik-e ârmâni, ~ minevâr

Fr.: magnétohydrodynamique idéale   

Magnetohydrodynamics of a → plasma with very large (infinite) → conductivity. In this condition, → Ohm's law reduces to E = -v × B, where E represents → electric field, B → magnetic field, and v the → fluid velocity. Ideal MHD is the simplest model to describe the dynamics of plasmas immersed in a magnetic field. It is concerned with → one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and neglects → resistivity. This theory treats the plasma composed of many charged particles with locally neutral charge as a continuous single → fluid. Ideal MHD does not provide information on the velocity distribution and neglects the physics relating to wave-particle interactions, as does the two-fluid theory as well. It does have the advantage that the macroscopic dynamics of the → magnetized plasma can be analyzed in realistic three-dimensional geometries (K. Nishikawa & M. Wakatani, 2000, Plasma Physics, Springer). See also → non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics.

ideal; → magnetohydrodynamics.


Fr.: idéalisme   

Any one of a variety of systems of philosophical thought, which would make the ultimate reality of the Universe expressible or intangible only in terms of idea in mind, rather than in terms of matter in space.

From → ideal, see also → idea, + → -ism.

  یکسان، همیدان   
yeksân (#), hamidân

Fr.: identique   

Similar or alike in every way; being the very same; agreeing exactly.

From M.L. identicus "the same," from L.L. identitas "identity," from idem "the same," from id "it, that one" + demonstrative suffix -dem.

Yeksân "the same, similar," from yek, → one, + -sân "manner, semblance" (variant sun, Mid.Pers. sân "manner, kind," Sogdian šôné "career").
Hamidân, from Mid.Pers. hamêtôn "identical."


Fr.: identification   

1) An act or instance of identifying; the state of being identified.
2) Psychology: The process of associating the self closely with other persons and assuming their characteristics or views unconsciously or partially so.
3) In psychological theories, a phase of recognition, the way in which the child's personality is formed by modeling it on a chosen parent.

Verbal noun of → identify.

Idâneš, verbal noun of idânidanidentify.

identification of lines
  ایدانش ِ خطها   
idâneš-e xatthâ

Fr.: identification de raies   

Recognizing the lines in the spectrum of a star, nebula, galaxy, etc. using a calibration template.

identification; → line.


Fr.: identifiant   

Computers: 1) One or more characters used to identify, name, or characterize the nature, properties, or contents of a set of data elements.
2) A string of bits or characters that names an entity, such as a program, device, or system, in order that other entities can call that entity.
3) In programming languages, a lexical unit that names a language object, such as a variable, array, record, label, or procedure.

Agent noun of → identify.


Fr.: identifier   

To recognize or establish as being a particular person or thing; e.g. → identification of lines.

Identify, from Fr. identifier, from identité, → identity.

Idânidan, infinitive from idâni, → identity.

  ایدانی، این‌همانی، کیستی، چیستی   
idâni, inhamâni (#), kisti (#), cisti (#)

Fr.: identité   

1) Math.: An equation that is valid for all values of its variables. A mathematical relationship equating one quantity to another.
2) Logic: An assertion that two terms refer to the same thing.
3) Psychology: The character of persisting unchanged. The feeling that one knows who one really is.

From M.Fr. identité, from L.L. identitas "sameness," from ident-, combining form of L. idem "the same; at the same time; also; moreover," from id "it, that one" + demonstrative suffix -dem + -itas a suffix used to form abstract nouns expressing state or condition.

Idâni, from iduni, from Mid.Pers. êdônih "being this, being that, being so, the manner of being," from êdôn "thus, so," Mod.Pers. idun "this, in this manner, now;" O.Pers. aita- demonstrative pronoun "this;" Av. aēta- "this; this here; this now," aētaδ- (adv.) "here, there; then, thus; thereupon;" cf. Skt. etad "this," iti "thus, in this manner;" akin to L. idem, as above.

<< < -ic ice ide ima ima imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf inh inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv iod ion iro iso iso iso > >>