Fr.: cristal de glace
A tiny particle of ice within which → water molecules are all lined up in a precise → crystalline structure. Ice crystals come in various shapes including needles, → dendrites, hexagonal columns, and → platelet. If the temperature decreases the water molecules can crystallize, arranging themselves around the suspended impurities such as dust particles. See also → snow crystal.
Fr.: géante de glace
A member of the lesser mass group of → gas giants. Ice giants contain a higher quantity of materials that form ices at low temperatures, such as → water, → methane, and → ammonia. There are two ice giants in the Solar System, → Uranus and → Neptune.
A building for storing ice throughout the year, mainly used prior to the invention of the refrigerator.
noqte-ye yax (#)
Fr.: point de congélation
The temperature at which a mixture of air-saturated pure water and pure ice may exist in equilibrium at a pressure of one standard atmosphere.
yaxberg, kuh-e yax (#)
A large mass of floating or stranded ice that has broken away from a glacier; usually more than 5 m above sea level.
Iceberg, half Anglicization, half adoption of Du. ijsberg "ice mountain," from ijs, → ice, + berg "mountain" (cf. Ger. Eisberg, Sw. isberg), from P.Gmc. *bergaz; cf. M.H.G. berc, O.H.G. berg "mountain;" cognate with Pers. boland, borz, berg, as below; PIE base *bheregh- "high, elevated."
Yaxberg, from yax, → ice,
+ berg "mountain, hill," in Laki dialect, related to Pers.
boland "high," variants bâlâ
"up, above, high, elevated, height," borz "height, magnitude"
(it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz),
Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;"
Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;"
Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf.
Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. & E. force);
O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc.
*burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city,"
E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg);
PIE base *bhergh- "high."
1) An image; a representation.
From Gk. eikon "likeness, image, portrait; a semblance;" in philosophy, "an image in the mind," related to eikenai "be like, look like," from PIE *weik- "to be like."
Zodiš, variant of Mid.Pers. uzdês "icon; image; idol," from uz-, → ex-, + dês, Av. daēs- "to show;" cognate with Gk. deiknumai "to show;" L. dicere "to utter, say, proclaim;" N.H.G. zeigen "to say;" O.E. têon "to annoince;" PIE *deik- "to show, point out; announce."
Idea, from L. idea "idea," pre-Platonic Gk. idea "form, semblance, nature, fashion," in Plato "a timeless, universal archetype of existents; ideal prototype," literally "look, form," from idein "to see," from PIE *wid-es-ya-, suffixed form of base *weid- "to know, to see;" cf. Pers. bin- "to see" (present stem of didan); Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know."
Miné "idea," related to Pers. maneš "disposition, temperament, greatness of soul," minu "heaven, paradise," also equivalent to Ger. Geist in recent philosophical translations, došman "enemy," pašimân "penitent, regretful," pežmân "sad, mournful," šâdmân "joyful, cheerful, pleased," ârmân "desire; → ideal;" dialectal (Šuštar) mana "(he) thinks, imagines," (Tarq-e Natanz) môna "to imagine, suppose;" Mid.Pers. mênidan "to think, consider," mên "thought, idea," mênišn "thought, thinking, mind, disposition," mênitâr "thinker," mênôg "spiritual, immaterial, heavenly," from Av. man- "to think," mainyeite "he thinks," manah- "mind, thinking, thought; purpose, intention," mainyu- "mind, mentality, mental force, inspiration," traditionally translated as "spirit," Angra Mainyu "hostile mentality" (Mod.Pers. Ahriman); O.Pers. maniyaiy "I think," Ardumaniš- (proper noun) "upright-minded," Haxāmaniš- (proper noun, Hellenized Achaemenes, founder of the Achaemenian dynasty) "having the mind of a friend;" cf. Sogdian mân "mind;" Skt. man- "to think," mánye "I think," manyate "he thinks," mánas- "intelligence, understanding, conscience;" Gk. mainomai "to be angry," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet;" L. mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea;" Goth. muns "thought," munan "to think;" Ger. Minne "love," originally "loving memory;" O.E. gemynd "memory, thinking, intention;" PIE base *men- "to think, mind; spiritual activity."
1) (n.) ârmân (#), minevâr; 2) (adj.) ârmâni (#), mineyi, minevâr
1) (n.) A standard of perfection, beauty, or excellence.
M.E. ydeall, from L.L. idealis "existing in idea," from L. → idea.
Ârmân "ideal" in Mod.Pers., traditionally "desire; hope; grief," variants
armân, urmân, prefixed from mân, "thought, mind," → idea.
The first element may be related to Av. armaē- "in peace, still; quietly;"
PIE base *er[ə]- "to be still" (cf. Skt. īrmā (adv.) "quiet,
still, being in the same place;" Gk. erôé "calm, peace;" O.H.G. rouwa
"rest"), as in Av. armaē.šad- "sitting quietly,"
armaē.štā- "standing still, stagnant." Therefore, Pers. ârmân
may be related to Av. *armaē.manah- (PIE *ermen-)
"thought in peace, quiet mind."
šâre-ye ârmâni, ~ minevâr
Fr.: fluide idéal
gâz-e ârmâni, ~-e minevâr
Fr.: gaz idéal
Theoretical gas assumed to consist of perfectly elastic molecules of negligible volume and mutual attraction force. Also called → perfect gas.
ideal gas law
qânun-e gâz-e ârmâni, ~ ~ minevâr
Fr.: loi des gaz parfaits
An → equation of state that relates pressure (P), temperature (T), and volume (V) of an ideal or → perfect gas: PV = nRT, where n is the number of → moles of gas present and R is the → universal gas constant. Equivalently: PV = NkT, where N is the number of atoms of gas present and k is → Boltzmann's constant.
ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
meqnâtohidrotavânik-e ârmâni, ~ minevâr
Fr.: magnétohydrodynamique idéale
Magnetohydrodynamics of a → plasma with very large (infinite) → conductivity. In this condition, → Ohm's law reduces to E = -v × B, where E represents → electric field, B → magnetic field, and v the → fluid velocity. Ideal MHD is the simplest model to describe the dynamics of plasmas immersed in a magnetic field. It is concerned with → one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and neglects → resistivity. This theory treats the plasma composed of many charged particles with locally neutral charge as a continuous single → fluid. Ideal MHD does not provide information on the velocity distribution and neglects the physics relating to wave-particle interactions, as does the two-fluid theory as well. It does have the advantage that the macroscopic dynamics of the → magnetized plasma can be analyzed in realistic three-dimensional geometries (K. Nishikawa & M. Wakatani, 2000, Plasma Physics, Springer). See also → non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics.
Any one of a variety of systems of philosophical thought, which would make the ultimate reality of the Universe expressible or intangible only in terms of idea in mind, rather than in terms of matter in space.
yeksân (#), hamidân
Similar or alike in every way; being the very same; agreeing exactly.
From M.L. identicus "the same," from L.L. identitas "identity," from idem "the same," from id "it, that one" + demonstrative suffix -dem.
Yeksân "the same, similar," from yek, → one, +
-sân "manner, semblance" (variant sun, Mid.Pers. sân "manner, kind,"
Sogdian šôné "career").
1) An act or instance of identifying; the state of being identified.
Verbal noun of → identify.
Idâneš, verbal noun of idânidan→ identify.
identification of lines
Fr.: identification de raies
Recognizing the lines in the spectrum of a star, nebula, galaxy, etc. using a calibration template.
1) One or more characters used to identify, name, or characterize the nature,
properties, or contents of a set of data elements.
Agent noun of → identify.
To recognize or establish as being a particular person or thing; e.g. → identification of lines.
Identify, from Fr. identifier, from identité, → identity.
Idânidan, infinitive from idâni, → identity.
idâni, inhamâni (#), kisti (#), cisti (#)
1) Math.: An equation that is valid for all values of its variables.
A mathematical relationship equating one quantity to another.
From M.Fr. identité, from L.L. identitas "sameness," from ident-, combining form of L. idem "the same; at the same time; also; moreover," from id "it, that one" + demonstrative suffix -dem + -itas a suffix used to form abstract nouns expressing state or condition.
Idâni, from iduni, from Mid.Pers. êdônih "being this, being that, being so, the manner of being," from êdôn "thus, so," Mod.Pers. idun "this, in this manner, now;" O.Pers. aita- demonstrative pronoun "this;" Av. aēta- "this; this here; this now," aētaδ- (adv.) "here, there; then, thus; thereupon;" cf. Skt. etad "this," iti "thus, in this manner;" akin to L. idem, as above.
Fr.: axiome d'identité
A basic rule in → group theory stating that there exists a unit group element e, called the identity, such that for any element a of the group a * e = e * a = a.