An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 611
infinitesimal calculus
  افماریک ِ بی‌کران‌خُرد   
afmârik-e bikarânxord

Fr.: calcul infinitésimal   

The body of rules and processes by means of which continuously varying magnitudes are dealt with in → calculus. The combined methods of mathematical analysis of → differential calculus and → integral calculus.

infinitesimal, → calculus.


Fr.: infinitif   

The nominal form of the verb which expresses the idea of action or state without indicating person, number, or tense.

Contraction of L. infinitivus modus "unlimited, indefinite mood," from L. infinitus, → infinite.

Karpâyé, literally "action base," from kar-, → verb, + pâyé, → base.

  بی‌پایان، بی‌پایانی   
bipâyân (#), bipâyâni (#)

Fr.: infini, infinité   

That quantity which is greater than any assignable quantity.

Noun form of → infinite.


Fr.: infixe   

An → affix that is inserted within a root or stem.

From L. infixus p.p. of infigere "to fasten in," from in- + figere "fasten."

Darvand, from dar- "in" + vand, → affix.


Fr.: s'enfler   

To become inflated; to increase, especially suddenly and substantially. → inflation, → inflatory model.

Inflate, from L. inflatus p.p. of inflare "to blow into, puff up," from → in- "into" + flare "to blow."

Pandâmidan "to swell," from pandâm [Mo'in] "swelling;" Borujerdi panâm, panam "swellig;" Malâyeri panomidan "to swell;" Laki penamiyen "to swell;" Hamadâni pandumidan "swelling of the eye or other parts of the body;" Kermâni padum kerdan "to swell," padum "swelled; fat, corpulent;" Tâleši pandâm, pandom "swelling;" Gilaki pandâm kudan "rising of river water caused by flood;" cf. Gk. pneuma "wind; breath," from pnein "to blow; to breathe;" PIE base *pneu- "to breathe." Related terms in other Indo-European languages: O.E. fnaeran "to breathe heavily," fneosan "to snort, sneeze;" M.H.G. pfnusen, pfnehen "to breathe, pant, sniff, snort, sneeze;" Norw. fnysa "to breeze;" M.Du. fniesen, Du. fniezen "to sneeze;" O.H.G. niosan, Ger. niesen "to sneeze."


Fr.: inflation   

1) General: The act of inflating; the state of being inflated.
2) Cosmology: A brief exponential expansion of the Universe postulated to have occurred 10-35 seconds after the → Big Bang, in response to the separation of the → strong interaction from the → electroweak interaction. This idea aims at explaining the → flatness problem, the → horizon problem, and the → magnetic monopole problem. See also → inflaton field.

Verbal noun of → inflate.

inflationary model
  مدل ِ پندامی   
model-e pandâmi

Fr.: modèle d'inflation   

A class of → Big Bang models of the Universe that include a finite period of accelerated expansion in their early histories. Such an event would have released enormous energy, stored until then in the vacuum of space-time. The horizon of the Universe expanded, temporarily, much faster than the speed of light. → inflaton field.

Inflationary, adj. of → inflation; → model.


Fr.: inflaton   

The hypothetical → particle that mediates the hypothetical → inflaton field.

From inflat-, from → inflaton field, + particle suffix → -on.

inflaton field
  میدان ِ اینفلاتون   
meydân-e inflaton

Fr.: champ inflaton   

A hypothetical → scalar field that provides a theoretical basis for → inflation in the early → Big Bang history of the → Universe. The inflaton field would fill space with the same energy at every point. In general, the scalar field can vary with time and space, though to a first approximation everywhere in the Universe will have the same value at any time. The field has a particle associated with it, called → inflaton, just as the → electromagnetic field is associated with the → photon. The inflaton field is characterized also by a → negative pressure that would yield a tremendous → repulsive gravity during a brief lapse of time. In the earliest moments of the Universe, space is uniformly filled with an inflaton field, whose value places it higher up on its → potential energy curve. The inflaton's → potential energy would drop in a tiny fraction of a second, on the order of 10-35 seconds. And yet, during that brief instant, space would expand by a colossal factor, of at least 1030.

inflaton; → field.


Fr.: mettre une désinence à, fléchir   

1) General: To bend in, to turn from a direct line or course.
2) Grammar: To change the ending or form of a word in accordance with other words in a sentence. To apply → inflection to.

From M.E.  inflecten, from  L. inflectere "to bend in, bow, curve," figuratively, "to change," from in- "in" + flectere "to bend, to curve,"  of uncertain origin.

Dartâvidan "to wind in, turn in, twist in," from dar- "in" + tâv- "winding, twisting," or tâb- present stem of tâbidan, tâvidan, tâftan "to turn, twist, spin," variants tow-, tov-, tob-, tab-, top-, Proto-Iranian *tāp- "to twist, wind," cognate with L. tempus "time (span)," Lith. tempti "to stretch, draw" (Cheung 2007).


Fr.: inflexion   

A change in the form of a word to indicate a change in such grammatical features as tense, person, gender, case, number, voice, or mood. A general term for → declension and → conjugation.

Verbal noun of → inflect.

inflection point
  نقطه‌ی ِ درتاوش   
noqte-ye dartâbeš

Fr.: point d'inflexion   

A point on a → curve at which the → tangent changes direction, from rotating in one sense to rotating in the opposite sense.

inflection; → point.


Fr.: désinentiel, flexionnel   

Of, relating to, or characterized by the use of → inflection, e.g. → inflectional affix.

inflection + → -al.

inflectional affix
  وند ِ درتاوشی   
vand-e dartâveši

Fr.: affixe inflexionnelle   

An → inflection that is added at the end of a root word. In English there are eight inflectional affixes, which are all suffixes. They always follow derivational suffixes and do not change the category of a word.

inflectional + → affix.


Fr.: afflux, débit entrant   

1) The act or process of flowing in or into. Something that flows in or into. Opposite of → outflow.
2) Meteo: Flow of water into a stream, lake, reservoir, container, basin, aquifer system, etc.

Inflow, from → in- + → flow.

  ۱) هنایش؛ ۲) هناییدن   
1) hanâyeš (#) ; 2) hanâyidan (#)

Fr.: 1) influence; 2) influencer, influer   

1) The act or power of producing an → effect, especially inconspicuously; the effect of power exerted.
2) To have or exert influence on; affect.

M.E., from O.Fr. influence, from L. influentia "stellar emanation" (it was thought an ethereal liquid flowed from the stars and affected the destiny of humans), also "a flow of water, a flowing in," from L. influentem (nominative influens), pr.p. of influere "to flow into," from → in- "into, in, on, upon" + fluere "to flow;" PIE base *bhleu- "to swell, overflow;" cf. Gk. phluein "to boil over, bubble up," phlein "to abound."

Hanâyeš "influence" (Borhân-e Qâte'; Kasravi). We suggest the following origin for this word: ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ha-nai "to conduct, direct, guide, lead," from *ham-naiH-, from prefix *ham- "together," also an intensive prefix, → com-, + *naiH- "to lead, conduct, guide;" cf. Av. naii- (naŷ-) "to lead, guide," naiieiti "leads;" O.Pers. nay- "to lead, bring" anaya "leads;" Mid.Pers. nidan, ônidan, nay- "to lead, bring;" Sogd. n'y- "to lead;" Choresmian (prefixed, + *apa-) bny- "to remove;" Skt. nī- "to lead," náyati "leads." In dialects: Anâraki niye "to bring, lead;" Kurd. (prefixed) ânin, inân, (with prefix ham-) hânin, hênân "to bring, lead to," Tâleši ânân, ânoe "to bring together two edges;" Zazaki ân- "to bring;" Qohrudi hunda, hun- "to bring, lead;" Târi niya-, neg- "to lead;" Lasgardi (prefixed) bin- "to bring, carry;" Qomi niyé, Tafreši neyé "a jab or poke used for leading the cattle;" see also → relate.

azdâyidan (#)

Fr.: informer   

1) To impart → knowledge of a fact or circumstance.
2) To supply (oneself) with knowledge of a matter or subject (
3) To convey → information.
See also: → informatics, → information theory.

Inform, from M.E. informen, from O.Fr. enformer, from L. informare "to shape, form; to form an idea of," from → in- "into" + → forma "form."

Azdâyidan, from Mid.Pers. azdênidan "to inform," from azd "information, proclamation; known" (loaned into Arm. azd), from O.Pers. azdā "known," azdā kar "to become known;" Av. azdā "known;" Sogdian 'zd' "informed, known;" cf. Skt. addhā' "manifestly; certainly, truly," addhāti "sage."


Fr.: informateur   

A person who gives → information.

From → inform + -ant a suffix forming adjectives and nouns from verbs.

azdâyik (#)

Fr.: informatique   

The science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded → information. Also called → information science, computer science.

Informatics, from informat(ion), → information + → ics.

azdâyeš (#)

Fr.: information   

1) Knowledge gained through study, communication, research, instruction, etc.
2) Knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstance; news.
3) The act or fact of informing.
4) A sequence of signals that conveys a message to a receiver. Information does not exist on its own. It is contained within something and is coded. The notion of information involves → uncertainty and → randomness; hence the necessity for calling on → probability theory and → statistics.
See also: → information content, → information entropy, → information flow, → information paradox, → information science, → information technology, → information theory, → infosphere, → quantum information, → entropy.

Verbal noun of → inform.

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