International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)
A satellite dedicated to spectroscopic observations of astronomical objects in ultraviolet wavelengths, launched in 1978. It was an international collaboration between → NASA, the → European Space Agency (ESA), and the United Kingdom's Science and Engineering Research Council. It operated until September 1996 and collected over 70,000 spectra. IUE consisted of a 45-cm telescope (f/15) equipped with two spectrographs operating in the ranges 1850-3300 Å and 1150-2000 Å. Each spectrograph had a high-resolution and a low-resolution mode with resolutions of about 0.2 Å and 6 Å respectively.
International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA)
hamdasti-ye andarnafâni-ye nepâhešgâh-e virâgin
Fr.: Alliance internationale de l'Observatoire Virtuel
An international cooperation whose objective is to facilitate the international coordination and collaboration necessary for the development and deployment of the tools, systems and organizational structures necessary to enable the international utilization of astronomical archives as an integrated and interoperating → Virtual Observatory. The IVOA, created in 2002, now comprises 20 Virtual Observatory programs from various countries and international organizations.
The ability of different types of computers, networks, operating systems, and software applications to work together by exchanging and sharing information in a standardized, accurate, and effective manner.
interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME)
ešâneš-e andarsayyâreyi-ye jerm az tâj
Fr.: éjection de masse coronale interplanétaire
Fr.: poussière interplanétaire
Particles of dust in the → interplanetary medium. They are left-overs from the beginning of the solar system or from other sources such as sublimating comets. Their existence was first deduced from observations of → zodiacal light.
Fr.: gaz interplanétaire
Electrically charged particles of the solar wind and gas liberated from comets within the solar system.
interplanetary magnetic field
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye andarsayyârei
Fr.: champ magnétique interstellaire
The magnetic field that is carried along with the solar wind and fills the solar system space. It is wound into a spiral structure by the rotation of the Sun. At the Earth's distance from the Sun, it has a strength of about 5 x 10-5 gauss.
Fr.: matière interplanétaire
Material existing in the space between solar system planets. It includes interplanetary gas and dust.
Fr.: milieu interplanétaire
The material contained in the → solar system in the space through which the planets travel. It consists of the smaller objects such as → asteroids, → comets, → meteorites and also a general pervading → interplanetary dust. Moreover a → plasma of charged particles streaming outward from the Sun in the form of the → solar wind contributes to the interplanetary medium.
Fr.: espace interplanétaire
Same as → interplanetary medium.
In a series of numerical values, the operation performed to find a number or value which is not present but which can be derived approximately from those that are present.
Verbal noun of interpolate, from L. interpolatus, p.p. of interpolare "to make new, refurbish, alter," from → inter- + polare, related to polire "to smoothe, polish."
Andaryâbeš, from andar-, → inter-, + yâbeš "finding," verbal noun of yâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire;" Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach."
âzandidan, âzand kardan
1) To give or provide the meaning of.
To ascribe a particular meaning or significance to something.
To try to make understandable something that is dense, complicated, or ambiguous.
Related concept: → explain.
From M.E. interpreten, from L. interpretari "explain, expound, understand," from interpres "agent, translator," from → inter- + pres of uncertain origin.
Âzand, from â- nuance/intensive prefix + Mid.Pers. zand "interpretation, commentary; knowledge" (zandik "gnostic; heretic"); Av. zan- "to know, recognize;" O.Pers. dan- "to know" (Mid./Mod.Pers. dân-, dânestan "to know"); variant O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize" (Mid./Mod.Pers. šenâxtan, šenâs- "to recognize, to know" ); cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge," cognate with L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); O.E. cnawan, E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know" + -idan infinitive suffix; kardan verb of compound infinitives, → -ize.
Verbal noun of → interpret.
Fr.: couper, croiser; intersecter
To cut or divide by passing through or across: a comet intersecting Earth's orbit.
From L. intersectus, p.p. of intersecarer, from → inter- + secare "to cut."
Andarboridan, from andar-, → inter-, + boridan
"to cut," from Mid.Pers. britan, brinitan "to cut off;"
Av. brāy-, present tense brin-, only with suffix pairi-,
"to cut off;" cf. Skt. bhri- "to hurt, injure," bhrinanti "they hurt."
The act, process, or result of intersecting.
Verbal noun of → intersect.
Referring to the medium or objects lying in the space between stars in our Galaxy or outer galaxies.
Fr.: absorption interstellaire
The absorption of light from stars and other objects by intervening gas and dust in interstellar space.
tangol-e andaraxtari, hobâb-e ~
Fr.: bulle interstellaire
A huge structure of ionized gas blown into the interstellar medium by the winds of supernovae and massive stars. → Local Bubble.
Fr.: nuage interstellaire
An aggregation of gas and dust in the → interstellar medium containing large quantities of atoms, molecules, and dust. There are several types of interstellar clouds, such as → diffuse interstellar clouds, → dark clouds, → molecular clouds.
Fr.: poussière interstellaire
An aggregation of → dust grains in the space between stars. Interstellar dust absorbs, scatters, and polarizes the light from distant stars, causing the → interstellar extinction. Large dark regions in the plane of the Milky Way and other galaxies are caused by → intervening clouds of dust. The conclusive proof for the presence of a general and selective interstellar absorption is due to R. J. Trumpler (1930). See also → reddening; → very small grain; → big grain; → PAH.