An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 620
invert
  واگرداندن، وارونیدن   
vâgardândan, vârunidan

Fr.: inververtir, renverser   

To turn upside down.
To reverse in position, order, direction, or relationship. → inversion layer.

From M.Fr. invertir, from L. invertere "turn upside down, turn about," from → in- "in, on" + vertere "to turn;" cf. Pers. gardidan, gaštan "to turn, to change;" Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" Skt. vartati; O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend."

Vâgardândan, from vâ-, → re-, + gardândan, from gardidan "to turn; to change," from Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend."
Vârunidan, infinitive of vârun, → inverse.

inverted population
  پرینش ِ واگردانیده، ~ وارون   
porineš-e vâgardânidé, ~ vârun

Fr.: population inversée   

In atomic physics, a condition in which there are more electrons in an upper energy level than in a lower one, while under normal conditions of thermal equilibrium the reverse is true. → optical pumping.

Inverted, p.p. of → invert; → population.

inviscid
  ناوشکسان   
nâvošksân

Fr.: non visqueux   

Fluid mechanics: Having no → viscosity. Same as → nonviscous.

From → in- "non-" + viscid, from L.L. viscidus, from vis(cum) "anything sticky, mistletoe," → viscous, + -idus.

invocation
  در-وچ، دروچ   
darvac

Fr.: invocation   

The act of invoking.

Verbal noun of → invoke.

invoke
  در-وچیدن، دروچیدن   
darvacidan

Fr.: invoquer   

1) to call for with earnest desire; make supplication or pray for.
2) to call on (a deity, Muse, etc.), as in prayer or supplication.
3) To declare to be binding or in effect (to invoke the law; to invoke a veto).
4) To appeal to, as for confirmation.
5) To petition or call on for help or aid.

M.E., from M.Fr. envoquer, from L. invocare "call upon, implore," from → in- "upon" + vocare "to call," from vox, → voice.

Darvacidan, from dar-, → in-, + vacidan "to call," rarr; convoke.

Io (Jupiter I)
  یو   
Yo (#)

Fr.: Io   

1) The fifth of → Jupiter's known moons and the third largest. It is the innermost of the → Galilean satellites. With a diameter of 3630 km, Io is slightly larger than Earth's Moon. It revolves at a mean distance of 422,000 km from Jupiter. Its mass is 8.93 x 1022 kg (about 1.2 Earth Moons) and its → orbital period 1.8 Earth days. The mean → surface temperature of Io is -155 °C. Io's yellow color derive from → sulfur and molten → silicate rock. The unusual surface of Io is kept very young by its system of active → volcanoes. The intense → tidal force of Jupiter stretches Io and damps wobbles caused by Jupiter's other Galilean moons. The resulting friction greatly heats Io's interior, causing molten rock to explode through the surface. Io's volcanoes are so active that they are effectively turning the whole moon inside out. Some of Io's volcanic lava is so hot it glows in the dark.
2) Also the name of an → asteroid numbered 85.

In Gk. mythology, Io was a maiden who was seduced by Zeus (Jupiter). When Hera came upon their rendez-vous, Zeus transformed the maiden into a white heifer.

iodine
  یود   
yod (#)

Fr.: iode   

A nonmetallic chemical element; symbol I; atomic number 53; atomic weight 126.9045; melting point 113.5°C; boiling point 184.35°C.

Iodine, coined 1814 by British chemist Sir Humphry Davy from Fr. iode "iodine," coined 1812 by Fr. chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (who proved it was an element) from Gk. ioeides "violet-colored," because of its violet vapors. Despite the priority rights dispute between Davy and Gay-Lussac, both acknowledged Courtois as the discoverer of the element.

Yod, from Fr. iode, as above.

ion
  یون   
yon (#)

Fr.: ion   

An atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons and has become electrically charged as the result.

Ion (introduced in 1834 by E. physicist and chemist Michael Faraday), from Gk ion " going," neut. pr.p. of ienai "to go," from PIE base *ei- "to go, to walk," eimi "I go;" cf. Pers. ây-, â- present stem of âmadan "to come;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" L. ire "to go;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Rus. idti "to go."

Yon, from Fr., from Gk., as above.

ion rays
  پرتوهای ِ یونی   
partowhâ-ye yoni (#)

Fr.: rayons ioniques   

The thin glowing streamers in a comet's ion tail.

ion; → ray.

ion tail
  دنباله‌ی ِ یونی   
donbâle-ye yoni (#)

Fr.: queue d'ions   

Of a comet, same as → gas tail.

gas; → tail.

ionic
  یونی   
yoni (#)

Fr.: ionique   

Of or pertaining to ions; occurring in the form of ions.

From → ion + → -ic.

ionic abundance
  فراوانی ِ یونی   
farâvâni-ye yoni

Fr.: abondance ionique   

A quantity, pertaining to an ion of a chemical element, expressing the relative number of the ion with respect to that of hydrogen.

ionic; → abundance.

ionic molecule
  مولکول ِ یونی   
molekul-e yoni

Fr.: molécule ionique   

A molecule that consists of the ions of the chemical elements that make up the molecule.

ionic; → molecule.

ionization
  یونش   
yoneš (#)

Fr.: ionisation   

The process by which ions are produced, typically occurring by interaction with electromagnetic radiation ("photoionization"), or by collisions with atoms or electrons ("collisional ionization").

Verbal noun of → ionize.

ionization correction factor (ICF)
  کروند ِ ارشایش ِ یونش   
karvand-e aršâyeš-e yoneš

Fr.: facteur de correction d'ionisation   

A quantity used in studies of → emission nebulae to convert the → ionic abundance of a given chemical element to its total → elemental abundance. The elemental abundance of an element relative to hydrogen is given by the sum of abundances of all its ions. In practice, not all the ionization stages are observed. One must therefore correct for unobserved stages using ICFs. A common way to do this was to rely on → ionization potential considerations. However, → photoionization models show that such simple relations do not necessarily hold. Hence, ICFs based on grids of photoionization models are more reliable. Nevertheless here also care should be taken for several reasons: the atomic physics is not well known yet, the ionization structure of a nebula depends on the spectral energy distribution of the stellar radiation field, which differs from one model to another, and the density structure of real nebulae is more complicated than that of idealized models (see, e.g., Stasińska, 2002, astro-ph/0207500, and references therein).

ionization; → correction; → factor.

ionization energy
  کاروژ ِ یونش   
kâruž-e yoneš

Fr.: énergie d'ionisation   

Same as → ionization potential.

ionization; → energy.

ionization front
  پیشان ِ یونش   
pišân-e yoneš

Fr.: front d'ionisation   

An abrupt discontinuity between an H II region and the molecular cloud in which it has formed. In this transition region interstellar gas changes from a mostly neutral state to a mostly ionized state.

ionization; → front.

ionization parameter
  پارامون ِ یونش   
pârâmun-e yoneš

Fr.: paramètre d'ionisation   

A ratio representing the number of ionizing photons to the number of electrons in a nebular emitting region.

ionization; → parameter.

ionization potential
  توند ِ یونش   
tavande yoneš

Fr.: potentiel d'ionisation   

The energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom or molecule. The ionization potential for hydrogen is 13.6 eV, which corresponds to an ultraviolet ionizing photon with a wavelength of 912 A. Also called → ionization energy.

ionization; → potential.

ionization stratification
  چینه‌بندی ِ یونش   
cine-bandi-ye yoneš

Fr.: stratification d'ionisation   

The spatial distribution of ionic species around an ionization source according to their → ionization potentials. The higher the ionization potential, the nearer to the source the corresponding ions will be.

ionization; → stratification.

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