An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 93
kinematics
  جنبشیک   
jonbešik

Fr.: cinématique   

The branch of mechanics dealing with the description of the motion of bodies or fluids without reference to the forces producing the motion.

From Gk. kinetikos "moving, putting in motion," from kinetos "moved," verbal adj. of kinein "to move;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro" (cf. Mod.Pers. šodan, šow- "to go; to become;" Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call").

Jonbešik, from jonbeš "motion" + -ik-ics. The first element from Mid.Pers. jumbidan, jumb- "to move," Lori, Laki jem "motion," related to gâm "step, pace;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go," Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes," gāman- "step, pace" (Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come"); Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step," L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come."

kinetic
  جنبشی   
jonbeši (#)

Fr.: cinétique   

Of or relating to motion; caused by motion; characterized by movement.

From Gk. kinetikos "moving, putting in motion," from kinein "to move," → kinematics.

Jonbeši, adj. of jonbeš, verbal noun of jonbidan, → move.

kinetic energy
  کاروژ ِ جنبشی   
kâruž-e jonbeši

Fr.: énergie cinétique   

The energy which a body possesses as a consequence of its motion, defined as one-half the product of its mass m and the square of its speed v, i.e. 1/2 mv2.

kinetic; → energy.

kinetic helicity
  پیچاری ِ جنبشی   
picari-ye jonbeši

Fr.: hélicité cinétique   

In fluid mechanics, a quantity that describes helical flow. It is defined by the integrated scalar product of the velocity field and the → vorticity: KK = ∫ dVu . ( x u). In the absence of magnetic field, this quantity is conserved by the → Euler equation. See also → magnetic helicity.

kinetic; → helicity.

kinetic potential
  توند ِ جنبشیک   
tavand-e jonbešik

Fr.: potentiel cinétique   

Same as → Lagrangian function.

kinetic; → potential.

kinetic temperature
  دمای ِ جنبشی   
damâ-ye jonbeši (#)

Fr.: température cinétique   

The temperature of a gas defined in terms of the average kinetic energy of its atoms or molecules.

kinetic; → temperature.

kinetic theory of gases
  نگره‌ی ِ جنبشی ِ گاز‌ها   
negare-ye jonbeši-ye gâzhâ (#)

Fr.: théorie cinétique des gaz   

A theory that explains macroscopic properties of gases, such as pressure, temperature, or volume, by considering their molecular composition and motion.

kinetic; → theory; → gas.

Kippenhahn diagram
  نمودار ِ کیپنهان   
nemudâr-e Kippenhahn

Fr.: diagrame de Kippenhahn   

A plot representing the evolution of the internal structure of a star as a function of time. The x-axis indicates the time, the y-axis the mass, and a color or shading specifies convective regions. A vertical line through the graph corresponds to a model at a particular time.

Named after Rudolf Kippenhahn (1926-), a German astrophysicist; → diagram

Kirchhoff's law
  قانون ِ کیرشهوف   
qânun-e Kirchhoff (#)

Fr.: loi de Kirchhoff   

The radiation law which states that at thermal equilibrium the ratio of the energy emitted by a body to the energy absorbed by it depends only on the temperature of the body.

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824-1887), a German physicist who made major contributions to the understanding of electric circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation from heated objects; → law.

Kirkwood gaps
  گاف‌های ِ کرک‌وود   
gâfhâ-ye Kirkwood (#)

Fr.: lacunes de Kirkwood   

Regions in the asteroid belt within which few asteroids are found. The Kirkwood gaps are due to the perturbing effects of Jupiter through resonances with Jupiter's orbital period.

Named for the American astronomer Daniel Kirkwood (1814-1895), who Discovered them in 1866; → gap.

kite
  زغن   
zaqan (#)

Fr.: milan   

Any of several small birds of the hawk family Accipitridae that have long, pointed wings, feed on insects, carrion, reptiles, rodents, and birds, and are noted for their graceful, gliding flight (Dictionary.com).

M.E. kyte, O.E. cyta, cognate with Ger. Kauz "owl."

Zaqan "kite," of uknown origin.

Kleinmann-Law nebula
  میغ ِ کلاینمن-لاؤ   
miq-e Kainman-Law

Fr.: nébuleuse de Kleinmann-Law   

An strong, extended infrared source in the Orion Nebula, about 1 arcminute NW of the Trapezium and about 12 arcseconds south of the → Becklin-Neugebauer object. It dominates the infrared emission at wavelengths above 20 microns. It probably represents a cluster of young and forming stars embedded in a dusty molecular cloud.

Named after Douglas E. Kleinmann (1942-) and Frank J. Low (1933-), who first studied this object in 1967; → nebula.

Klotho
  کلوتو   
klotho (#)

Fr.: Klotho, Clotho   

A → main belt asteroid (97) discovered by the German astronomer Ernst W. Temple in 1868 working at Marseille Observatory.

Named after Klotho (literally "spinner") the Gk. goddess of fate who spins the thread of life, from klothein "to spin."

klystron
  کلیسترون   
klistron (#)

Fr.: klystron   

An electron tube for converting direct-current energy into radio frequency energy by alternately speeding up and slowing down the electrons. It is used as a microwave amplifier or oscillator in radar and high-frequency radio work.

From Gk. kluzein, klus- "to wash, break over" + -tron.

knee
  زانو   
zânu (#)

Fr.: genou   

1) The joint of the leg that allows for movement between the femur and tibia and is protected by the patella; the central area of the leg between the thigh and the lower leg.
2) Something resembling a bent knee, especially a rigid or braced angle between two framing members (Dictionary.com). → alpha element knee

M.E. kne; O.E. cneo, cneow "knee" (cognates: O.Norse kne, O.Sax. kneo, M.Du. cnie, Dutch knie, O.H.G. kniu, Ger. Knie; cf. Pers. zânu, as below.

Zânu "knee," Mid.Pers. šnûg "knee;" Av. žnu- "knee;" cognates: Skt. jānu-, Hittite genu "knee;" Gk. gonu "knee," gonia "corner, angle;" L. genu "knee;" O.E. cneo, as above; PIE *gnéwo-.

knife
  کارد   
kârd (#)

Fr.: couteau   

1) An instrument for cutting, consisting essentially of a thin, sharp-edged, metal blade fitted with a handle.
2) Any blade for cutting, as in a tool or machine (Dictionary.com).

M.E. knif; O.E. cnif, probably from O.N. knifr; cf. M.L.G. knif, M.Du. cnijf, Ger. Kneif; of uncertain origin.

Kârd "knife," from Mid.Pers. kârt "knife;" Av. karət- "to cut;" cf. Skt. kart- "to cut," karəta- "knife;" Proto-Ir. *kart- "to cut."

knife-edge test
  آزمون ِ کارد   
âzmun-e kârd (#)

Fr.: contrôle par foucaultage   

The same as → Foucault knife-edge test.

knife; → edge; → test.

know
  دانستن   
dânestan (#)

Fr.: savoir   

1) To perceive or understand as fact or truth; to apprehend clearly and with certainty.
2) To have established or fixed in the mind or memory (Dictionary.com).

M.E. knowen, knawen, from O.E. cnâwan, akin to O.H.G. bichnâan "to recognize," L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know," Gk. gignoskein, Pers. šenâxtan, dânestan, as below.

Dânestan "to know;" Mid.Pers. dânistan "to know;" variant šenâxtan, šenâs- "to recognize, to know" (Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize"); O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge," cognate with L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan, E. know, as above; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."

knowledge
  شناخت   
šenâxt (#)

Fr.: connaissance   

1) All the information, facts, truths, and principles learned throughout time.
2) Acquaintance with facts, truths, or principles, as from study or investigation.

M.E. cnawlece, from O.E. cnawan, cf. O.H.G. bi-chnaan, ir-chnaan "to know;" cognate with Pers. šenâxt, as below.

Šenâxt, past stem of šenâxtan, šenâsidan "to know, discern, distinguish, be acquainted with;" Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize," dânestan "to know;" O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge;" L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); O.E. cnawan; E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."

Knudsen layer
  لایه‌ی ِ کنودسن   
lâye-ye Knudsen

Fr.: couche de Knudsen   

The thin layer of → vapor immediately adjacent to an irradiated surface. The thickness of the Knudsen layer is generally recognized to be in the order of a few → mean free paths from the surface.

Named after Danish physicist Martin Knudsen (1871-1949); → layer.

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