nur-zamân, zamân-e nuri (#)
The time it takes for light, travelling at about 300 000 km per second, to travel a certain distance.
apest-e safar-e nur
Fr.: distance du voyage de la lumière
The distance traversed by a photon between the time it is emitted and the time it reaches the observer. It is also referred to as the → look-back time.
nur-sâl (#), sâl-e nuri (#)
Fr.: faisceau de fibres optiques; guide d'ondes optique
A bundle of optical fibers arranged randomly for the purpose of transmitting energy, not an image.
Fr.: genre lumière
Fr.: intervalle genre lumière
The space-time interval between two events if it is zero, i.e. ds2 = 0.
Lightning, pr.p. of lightnen "make bright," extended form of O.E. lihting, from leht, → light.
Âzaraxš, from âzar "fire," variants âtaš, taš (Mid.Pers. âtaxš, âtur "fire;" Av. ātar-, āθr- "fire," singular nominative ātarš-; O.Pers. ātar- "fire;" Av. āθaurvan- "fire priest;" Skt. átharvan- "fire priest;" cf. L. ater "black" ("blackened by fire"); Arm. airem "burns;" Serb. vatra "fire;" PIE base *āter- "fire") + raxš "lightning, reflection of light," raxšidan "to shine, flash," variant deraxš, deraxšidan "to shine, radiate" (O.Pers. raucah-, Av. raocah- "light" (cf. Skt. roka- "brightness, light," Gk. leukos "white, clear," L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna), E. light, Ger. Licht, Fr. lumière; PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness"); cognate with Mod.Pers. words ruz "day," rowšan "bright, clear," foruq "light," and afruxtan "to light, kindle").
1) The state of being likely or probable; a probability or chance of something.
From → likely + -hood a suffix denoting state, condition, character, nature, etc., from M.E. -hode, -hod, O.E. -hād (cf. Ger. -heit).
Šodvâri, noun of šodvâr, → likely.
Fr.: fonction de vraisemblance
A function that allows one to estimate unknown parameters based on known outcomes. Opposed to → probability, which allows one to predict unknown outcomes based on known parameters. More specifically, a probability refers to the occurrence of future events, while a likelihood refers to past events with known outcomes.
Probably or apparently destined; having a high probability of occurring or being true.
Perhaps from O.N. likligr "likely," from likr "like" (adj.).
Šodvâr, from šod past stem of šodan "to become, to be, to be doing, to go, to pass" + -vâr a suffix with several meanings "resembling, like, in the manner of; having, endowed with." The first element from Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro."
1) The outer edge or border of the apparent disk of a celestial body.
→ limb brightening, → limb darkening.
From L. limbus "border, hem, fringe, edge," cognate with Skt. lambate "hangs down."
Labé "limb, edge," from lab "lip;" Mid.Pers. lap; cognate with L. labium, E. lip; Ger. Lefze.
Fr.: embrillancement centre-bord
An observed increase in the intensity of radio, extreme ultraviolet, or X-radiation from the Sun from its center to its limb.
Fr.: assombrissement centre-bord
An apparent decrease in brightness of the Sun near its edge as compared to its brightness toward the center. Limb darkening is readily apparent in photographs of the Sun. The reason is that when we look toward the disk's center we look into deeper and hence hotter layers along the line of sight. Toward the limb, we get radiation from higher and hence cooler and less bright layers of the → photosphere. Limb darkening has been detected in the case of several other stars. A similar phenomenon occurs in → eclipsing binaries where the effect of limb darkening on one or both components manifests itself in the shape of the system's → light curve.
A white or grayish-white substance obtained by burning → limestone, used in mortars, plasters, cements, and in the manufacture of steel, paper, glass, and various chemicals of calcium.
M.E., O.E. lim; akin to Du. lijm, Ger. Leim, O.N. lim "glue;" L. limus "slime."
Âhak, probably a variant of xâk, → soil.
sang-e âhak (#)
Fr.: castine, calcaire
A → sedimentary rock composed principally of calcium carbonate. Limestone is usually formed from shells of once-living organisms or other organic processes, but may also form by inorganic precipitation.
1) General: The final, utmost, or furthest → boundary or
→ point as to extent, amount, continuance, procedure, etc.
From O.Fr. limite "a boundary," from L. limitem (nom. limes) "a boundary, embankment between fields, border," related to limen "threshold."
Loan from Ar. Hadd "limit, term."
Confined within limits; restricted or circumscribed.
Adj. of → limit.
Fr.: magnitude limite
The faintest magnitude reachable by an instrument.
A widely occurring ore of yellowish-brown to black color that consists of amorphous oxides of iron.
Gk. leimon "meadow" in reference to its occurrence as "bog ore" in meadows and marshes + → -ite.
Fr.: résonance de Lindblad
A kinematic resonance hypothesized to explain the existence of galactic → spiral arms. It occurs when the frequency at which a star encounters the spiral → density wave is a multiple of its → epicyclic frequency. Orbital resonances occur at the location in the disk where Ωp = Ω ± κ/m, where Ωp is → pattern speed, κ → epicyclic frequency, and m an integer representing the number of spiral arms. The minus sign corresponds to the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) and the plus sign to the outer Lindblad resonance (OLR). The corotation resonance corresponds to Ωp = Ω. In general, the Lindblad resonances are defined for two spiral arms (m = 2), and low order. There are other less important resonances corresponding to higher m values. These resonances tend to increase the object's orbital eccentricity and to cause its longitude of periapse to line up in phase with the perturbing force. Lindblad resonances drive spiral density waves both in galaxies (where stars are subject to forcing by the spiral arms themselves) and in Saturn's rings (where ring particles are subject to forcing by Saturn's moons).
After the originator of the model, Bertil Lindblad (1895-1965), a Swedish astronomer, who made important contributions to the study of the rotation of the Galaxy; → resonance.