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linearization xatteš, xattâneš Fr.: linéarisation A process of reduction to linear form by appropriate change of variables or by approximation. Verbal noun of → linearize. |
linearize xattidan, xattânidan Fr.: linéariser To make linear; give linear form to. |
linearized differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâneyi-ye xatti Fr.: équation différentielle linéarisée A differential equation that has been derived from an original nonlinear equation. Linearized, p.p. of → linearize; → differential; → equation. |
linearly xattâné Fr.: linéairement In a manner characterized by first-degree algebraic terms. Adverb of → linear. |
linearly dependent xattâné vâbasté Fr.: linéairement dépendant A set of objects x_{1}, x_{2}, ..., x_{n} (→ vectors, → matrices, → polynomials, etc.) on a given set if there is a linear combination of them: a_{1}x_{1} + a_{2}x_{2} + ... + a_{n}x_{n}, which is zero, but at least one of the coefficients is non-zero. For example the binomials (2x + y) and (6x + 3y) are linearly dependent, since 3(2x + y) - (6x + 3y) = 0. |
linearly independent xattâné nâvâbasté Fr.: linéairement indépendant 1) A set of objects x_{1}, x_{2}, ..., x_{n}
(→ vectors, → matrices,
→ polynomials, etc.) if it si not
→ linearly dependent. → linearly; → independent. |
linearly polarized light nur-e qotbide-ye xatti Fr.: lumière polarisée linéairement Light exhibiting → linear polarization. |
LINER lâyner (#) Fr.: LINER A type of galactic nucleus that is defined by its spectral line emission. The lines are very weak, the most prominent ones being from low ionization states (such as [O II], [N II], [S II] and [OI]). There is so far no generally accepted interpretation of the spectra of liners. It is likely that galaxies of different histories may have their nuclei with liner-type spectra. → retired galaxy. Short for → Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region. The term liner was first introduced by T. M. Heckman (1980, A&A 87, 152). |
linewidth xatt-pahnâ (#), pahnâ-ye xatt (#) Fr.: largeur de raie 1) The range of frequencies or wavelengths over which
radiations are absorbed or emitted in a transition between a specific
pair of atomic energy levels. The full width is determined between
half-power points of the line. |
linguistic variable vartande-ye zabânik Fr.: variable linguistique One of several → input or → output variables of a → fuzzy logic system whose values are → words or → sentences from a natural language, instead of numerical values. → linguistic; → variable. |
linguistics zabânik (#), zabânšenâsi (#) Fr.: linguistique The study of the structure and evolution of → language, including → phonetics, → morphology, syntax, semantics. From linguistic, from linguistic, from linguist, from L. lingua, → language, + → ics. Zabânik, from zabân, → language, + -ik, → -ics. Zabânšenâsi, from zabân + šenâsi, → -logy. |
link peyvand (#) Fr.: lien 1) General: Anything serving to connect one part or thing with another;
a bond or tie. From M.E. link(e), of Scandinavian origin; akin to O.Dan. lænkia "chain;" Old Norse hlekkr "chain;" Ger. Gelenk "joint." Peyvand "join, union," from peyvandidan, peyvastan "to join, connect;" Mid.Pers. peywand, peywastan "connection, offspring; to join, connect, attach," from *pati-basta-, from suffix pati- (Mid.Pers. pât-,from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of," Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite," Pali pati-, Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + basta- "tied, shut" (Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind), cf. Skt. prati-bandh- "to tie." |
linkage peyvand, ham-payvandi (#) Fr.: liaison 1) General: An act or mode of linking; the fact of being linked. From → link + -age a suffix of abstract nouns from O.Fr. |
lion šir (#) Fr.: lion A large, usually tawny-yellow cat, Panthera leo, native to Africa and southern Asia, having a tufted tail and, in the male, a large mane (dictionary.com). M.E., from O.Fr., variant of leon, from L. leon- (stem of leo), from Gk. leon. Mid.Pers. šagr "lion;" cf. Parth. šarg; Sogd. šarγu "lion;" its O.Pers. and Av. forms are not extant. Šir may be cognate with Skt. kēsarin- "lion; literally maned," from kēsar- "mane;" PIE *kaisar- "mane; hairs." If so, šir could be related to PIE *kaisaraka-, provided that the the initial *kai- is dropped and *saraka- has transformed in *sarg, šarg, šir. |
Liouville's theorem farbin-e Liouville Fr.: théorème de Liouville A key theorem in statistical mechanics of classical systems which states that the motion of phase-space points defined by Hamilton's equations conserves phase-space volume. After Joseph Liouville (1809-1882), a French mathematician; → theorem. |
liquefaction âveš Fr.: liquéfaction 1) The act or process of liquefying or making liquid. |
liquefy âvidan Fr.: liquéfier 1) To reduce to a liquid state. M.E. lyquefyen, from O.Fr. liquefier, from L. liquefacere "make → liquid, melt," from liquere "be fluid" + facere "to make," → -fy. |
liquid âvé, âbgun (#) Fr.: liquide The state of matter in which a substance exhibits a characteristic readiness to flow, little or no tendency to disperse, and relatively high incompressibility. O.Fr. liquide, from L. liquidus "fluid, liquid, moist," from liquere "be fluid," related to liqui "to melt, flow." Âvé, from âv, variant of âb "→ water" +
nuance suffix -e. |
liquid crystal bolur-e âvé (#) Fr.: cristaux liquides A type of material that possesses less geometrical regularity or order than normal solid crystals, and whose order varies in response to alterations in temperature, electric field, and other quantities. |
liquid helium heliom-e âvé Fr.: hélium liquide The state of helium (^{4}He) below its boiling point of 4.2 K. Its normal form is called → helium I, but converts into superfluid → helium II below 2.17 K (→ lambda point). Liquid helium is colorless and transparent so that it is impossible to see the surface of the liquid with the naked eye. Helium was first liquefied in 1911 by the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1936), Physics Nobel Prize 1913. |
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