An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 491

Fr.: linéarité   

The property, condition, or state of being linear.
Math.: A relationship between two variables so that when plotted on a graph they yield a straight line.

linear; → -ity.

  خطش، خطانش   
xatteš, xattâneš

Fr.: linéarisation   

A process of reduction to linear form by appropriate change of variables or by approximation.

Verbal noun of → linearize.

  خطیدن، خطانیدن   
xattidan, xattânidan

Fr.: linéariser   

To make linear; give linear form to.

linear + → -ize.

linearized differential equation
  هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای ِ خطی   
hamugeš-e degarsâneyi-ye xatti

Fr.: équation différentielle linéarisée   

A differential equation that has been derived from an original nonlinear equation.

Linearized, p.p. of → linearize; → differential; → equation.


Fr.: linéairement   

In a manner characterized by first-degree algebraic terms.

Adverb of → linear.

linearly dependent
  خطانه وابسته   
xattâné vâbasté

Fr.: linéairement dépendant   

A set of objects x1, x2, ..., xn (→ vectors, → matrices, → polynomials, etc.) on a given set if there is a linear combination of them: a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn, which is zero, but at least one of the coefficients is non-zero. For example the binomials (2x + y) and (6x + 3y) are linearly dependent, since 3(2x + y) - (6x + 3y) = 0.

linearly; → dependent.

linearly independent
  خطانه ناوابسته   
xattâné nâvâbasté

Fr.: linéairement indépendant   

1) A set of objects x1, x2, ..., xn (→ vectors, → matrices, → polynomials, etc.) if it si not → linearly dependent.
2) Of two particular solutions (y1, y2) of a → homogeneous linear differential equation of the second order (y'' + a1 y' + a2y = 0) on an interval [a, b], if their ratio in this interval is not a constant: y1/y2≠ constant.

linearly; → independent.

linearly polarized light
  نور ِ قطبیده‌ی ِ خطی   
nur-e qotbide-ye xatti

Fr.: lumière polarisée linéairement   

Light exhibiting → linear polarization.

linearly; → polarized; → light.

lâyner (#)

Fr.: LINER   

A type of galactic nucleus that is defined by its spectral line emission. The lines are very weak, the most prominent ones being from low ionization states (such as [O II], [N II], [S II] and [OI]). There is so far no generally accepted interpretation of the spectra of liners. It is likely that galaxies of different histories may have their nuclei with liner-type spectra. → retired galaxy.

Short for → Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region. The term liner was first introduced by T. M. Heckman (1980, A&A 87, 152).

  خط-پهنا، پهنای ِ خط   
xatt-pahnâ (#), pahnâ-ye xatt (#)

Fr.: largeur de raie   

1) The range of frequencies or wavelengths over which radiations are absorbed or emitted in a transition between a specific pair of atomic energy levels. The full width is determined between half-power points of the line.
2) In a laser, the range of frequencies over which most of the beam energy is distributed.

line; → width.

linguistic variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ زبانیک   
vartande-ye zabânik

Fr.: variable linguistique   

One of several → input or → output variables of a → fuzzy logic system whose values are → words or → sentences from a natural language, instead of numerical values.

linguistic; → variable.

  زبانیک، زبانشناسی   
zabânik (#), zabânšenâsi (#)

Fr.: linguistique   

The study of the structure and evolution of → language, including → phonetics, → morphology, syntax, semantics.

From linguistic, from linguistic, from linguist, from L. lingua, → language, + → ics.

Zabânik, from zabân, → language, + -ik, → -ics. Zabânšenâsi, from zabân + šenâsi, → -logy.

peyvand (#)

Fr.: lien   

1) General: Anything serving to connect one part or thing with another; a bond or tie.
2) A direct connection in a hypertext document to the Internet address (URL) of another document.

From M.E. link(e), of Scandinavian origin; akin to O.Dan. lænkia "chain;" Old Norse hlekkr "chain;" Ger. Gelenk "joint."

Peyvand "join, union," from peyvandidan, peyvastan "to join, connect;" Mid.Pers. peywand, peywastan "connection, offspring; to join, connect, attach," from *pati-basta-, from suffix pati- (Mid.Pers. pât-,from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of," Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite," Pali pati-, Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + basta- "tied, shut" (Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind), cf. Skt. prati-bandh- "to tie."

  پیوند، هم‌پیوندی   
peyvand, ham-payvandi (#)

Fr.: liaison   

1) General: An act or mode of linking; the fact of being linked.
2) Physics: The amount of magnetic flux passing through a coil of wire or other electric circuit.

From → link + -age a suffix of abstract nouns from O.Fr.

From ham-, → com-, + peyvand, → link, + noun suffix -y.

šir (#)

Fr.: lion   

A large, usually tawny-yellow cat, Panthera leo, native to Africa and southern Asia, having a tufted tail and, in the male, a large mane (

M.E., from O.Fr., variant of leon, from L. leon- (stem of leo), from Gk. leon.

Mid.Pers. šagr "lion;" cf. Parth. šarg; Sogd. šarγu "lion;" its O.Pers. and Av. forms are not extant. Šir may be cognate with Skt. kēsarin- "lion; literally maned," from kēsar- "mane;" PIE *kaisar- "mane; hairs." If so, šir could be related to PIE *kaisaraka-, provided that the the initial *kai- is dropped and *saraka- has transformed in *sarg, šarg, šir.

Liouville's theorem
  فربین ِ لیوویل   
farbin-e Liouville

Fr.: théorème de Liouville   

A key theorem in statistical mechanics of classical systems which states that the motion of phase-space points defined by Hamilton's equations conserves phase-space volume.

After Joseph Liouville (1809-1882), a French mathematician; → theorem.


Fr.: liquéfaction   

1) The act or process of liquefying or making liquid.
2) The state of being liquefied.

liquefy; → -tion.


Fr.: liquéfier   

1) To reduce to a liquid state.
2) To become liquid.

M.E. lyquefyen, from O.Fr. liquefier, from L. liquefacere "make → liquid, melt," from liquere "be fluid" + facere "to make," → -fy.

  آوه، آبگون   
âvé, âbgun (#)

Fr.: liquide   

The state of matter in which a substance exhibits a characteristic readiness to flow, little or no tendency to disperse, and relatively high incompressibility.

O.Fr. liquide, from L. liquidus "fluid, liquid, moist," from liquere "be fluid," related to liqui "to melt, flow."

Âvé, from âv, variant of âb "→ water" + nuance suffix -e.
Âbgun literally "resembling water," from âb "water," + gun "resembling; manner, fashion; color" (Mid.Pers. gônak "kind, species;" Av. gaona- "color").

liquid crystal
  بلور ِ آوه   
bolur-e âvé (#)

Fr.: cristaux liquides   

A type of material that possesses less geometrical regularity or order than normal solid crystals, and whose order varies in response to alterations in temperature, electric field, and other quantities.

liquid; → crystal.

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