linearly polarized light
nur-e qotbide-ye xatti
Fr.: lumière polarisée linéairement
Light exhibiting → linear polarization.
A type of galactic nucleus that is defined by its spectral line emission. The lines are very weak, the most prominent ones being from low ionization states (such as [O II], [N II], [S II] and [OI]). There is so far no generally accepted interpretation of the spectra of liners. It is likely that galaxies of different histories may have their nuclei with liner-type spectra. → retired galaxy.
Short for → Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region. The term liner was first introduced by T. M. Heckman (1980, A&A 87, 152).
xatt-pahnâ (#), pahnâ-ye xatt (#)
Fr.: largeur de raie
1) The range of frequencies or wavelengths over which
radiations are absorbed or emitted in a transition between a specific
pair of atomic energy levels. The full width is determined between
half-power points of the line.
Fr.: variable linguistique
zabânik (#), zabânšenâsi (#)
1) General: Anything serving to connect one part or thing with another;
a bond or tie.
From M.E. link(e), of Scandinavian origin; akin to O.Dan. lænkia "chain;" Old Norse hlekkr "chain;" Ger. Gelenk "joint."
Peyvand "join, union," from peyvandidan, peyvastan "to join, connect;" Mid.Pers. peywand, peywastan "connection, offspring; to join, connect, attach," from *pati-basta-, from suffix pati- (Mid.Pers. pât-,from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of," Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite," Pali pati-, Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + basta- "tied, shut" (Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind), cf. Skt. prati-bandh- "to tie."
peyvand, ham-payvandi (#)
1) General: An act or mode of linking; the fact of being linked.
From → link + -age a suffix of abstract nouns from O.Fr.
A large, usually tawny-yellow cat, Panthera leo, native to Africa and southern Asia, having a tufted tail and, in the male, a large mane (dictionary.com).
M.E., from O.Fr., variant of leon, from L. leon- (stem of leo), from Gk. leon.
Mid.Pers. šagr "lion;" cf. Parth. šarg; Sogd. šarγu "lion;" its O.Pers. and Av. forms are not extant. Šir may be cognate with Skt. kēsarin- "lion; literally maned," from kēsar- "mane;" PIE *kaisar- "mane; hairs." If so, šir could be related to PIE *kaisaraka-, provided that the the initial *kai- is dropped and *saraka- has transformed in *sarg, šarg, šir.
Fr.: théorème de Liouville
A key theorem in statistical mechanics of classical systems which states that the motion of phase-space points defined by Hamilton's equations conserves phase-space volume.
After Joseph Liouville (1809-1882), a French mathematician; → theorem.
1) The act or process of liquefying or making liquid.
1) To reduce to a liquid state.
âvé, âbgun (#)
The state of matter in which a substance exhibits a characteristic readiness to flow, little or no tendency to disperse, and relatively high incompressibility.
O.Fr. liquide, from L. liquidus "fluid, liquid, moist," from liquere "be fluid," related to liqui "to melt, flow."
Âvé, from âv, variant of âb "→ water" +
nuance suffix -e.
bolur-e âvé (#)
Fr.: cristaux liquides
A type of material that possesses less geometrical regularity or order than normal solid crystals, and whose order varies in response to alterations in temperature, electric field, and other quantities.
Fr.: hélium liquide
The state of helium (4He) below its boiling point of 4.2 K. Its normal form is called → helium I, but converts into superfluid → helium II below 2.17 K (→ lambda point). Liquid helium is colorless and transparent so that it is impossible to see the surface of the liquid with the naked eye. Helium was first liquefied in 1911 by the Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1936), Physics Nobel Prize 1913.
Fr.: miroir liquide
A mirror composed of liquid, taking advantage of the parabolic shape of a spinning liquid and the fact that the mirror's focal length can be adjusted by altering the velocity at which the liquid's container spins.
Fr.: eau liquide
Water in a state that is neither ice nor vapor.
In the → phase diagram of a → mixture (such as an → alloy) at constant pressure, the → curve that separates the all liquid phase from the liquid+solid phase. Below the liquidus the mixture will be partly or entirely → solid. See also → solidus.
From L. liquidus, → liquid.
Fr.: LISA Pathfinde
An → ESA spacecraft that was launched on December 3, 2015 to test technologies needed for the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), an ESA → gravitational wave observatory planned to be launched in 2034. LISA Pathfinder paves the way for future missions by testing in flight the very concept of gravitational wave detection.
xam-e Lissajous (#)
Fr.: courbe de Lissajous, figure de ~
A curve traced out by a point which is oscillating simultaneously in two mutually perpendicular directions. In general, the amplitude and frequency may be different in the two directions, and the two oscillations may have an arbitrary initial phase difference. The simplest pattern is a straight line, being obtained from two oscillations of equal frequency in phase with each other. The patterns can become very involved if the ratio of the frequencies is not a simple one.
After the French physicist Jules Antoine Lissajous (1822-1880), who first demonstrated such curves (Comptes-Rendus, 1857, 44, 727); → figure.
Xam, → curve.
Fr.: orbite de Lissajous
A quasi-periodic path resembling a → Lissajous figure around the L1 or L2 → Lagrangian points of a two-body system. Lissajous orbits, resulting from a combination of planar and vertical components, are used by certain space telescopes (such as → WMAP, → Planck Satellite, and → Herschel Satellite) that are required to be in a stable position relative to the Earth and Sun while making long-term observations.