The → total → brightness
of a star or other astronomical object.
It is expressed in watts and represents the total amount of
→ energy that the object radiates each
→ second over all
wavelength regions of the → electromagnetic spectrum.
Because this quantity is independent of distance, it is an
→ intrinsic brightness.
Verbal noun of → luminous.
rade-ye tâbandegi (#)
Fr.: classe de luminosité
A classification of stellar spectra according to luminosity for a given → spectral type. The luminosity class is an indication of a star's → surface gravity. It is shown by a Roman numeral as follows: I (→ supergiants), II (bright → giants), III (normal giants), IV (→ subgiants), and V (→ dwarf stars, or → main-sequence stars). Luminosity classes VI (→ subdwarfs) and VII (→ white dwarfs) are rarely used. Subclasses a, b, and c are especially used for supergiants, while the most luminous → hypergiants are assigned luminosity class Ia-0.
Fr.: distance de luminosité
1) Distance derived by comparison of → observed and
→ intrinsic luminosities.
If an object has a known luminosity L, and the observed flux is
S, the luminosity distance is defined by
DL = (L/4πS)1/2.
Fr.: fonction de luminosité
Number → distribution of → stars or galaxies (→ galaxy) with respect to their → absolute magnitudes. The luminosity function shows the → number of stars of a given intrinsic luminosity (or the number of galaxies per integrated magnitude band) in a given → volume of space.
Fr.: problème de luminosité
Low-mass → protostars are about an order of magnitude less luminous than expected. Two possible solutions are that → low-mass stars form slowly, and/or protostellar → accretion is episodic. The latter accounts for less than half the missing luminosity. The solution to this problem relates directly to the fundamental question of the time required to form a low-mass star (McKee & Offner, 2010, astro-ph/1010.4307).
tâbân (#), tâbeši (#)
Radiating light or other types of electromagnetic energy.
From L. luminosus "shining, full of light," from → lumen (gen. luminis) "light," related to lucere "to shine."
Tâbân "luminous," verbal adj. of tâbidan "to shine," variants tâftan "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot," related to tâb "heat, burning; heated iron; torment," âftâb "sunshine," tâbé "frying-pan," tab "fever;" dialect of Gaz tôu-, tôwâ "to shine;" Khotanese ttav- "to be hot;" Mid.Pers. tâftan "to heat, burn, shine;" taftan "to become hot;" Parthian tâb- "to shine;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "to heat, be/become hot; to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "to be warm."
Luminous Blue Variable (LBV)
vartande-ye âbi-ye tâbân
Fr.: variable bleue lumineuse
A high-luminosity variable star, which represents a transition phase in the life of a massive star when it evolves off the main sequence to become a supernova. Only about a dozen confirmed LBVs are presently known in our Galaxy. → Hubble-Sandage variable.
šâr-e tâbeši (#)
Fr.: flux lumineux
A measure of the rate of flow of luminous energy, evaluated according to its ability to produce a visual sensation. It is measured in lumens.
luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG)
kahkešân-e forusorx-e tâbân
Fr.: galaxie lumineuse en infrarouge
A galaxy that emits most of its energy in the infrared and whose infrared luminosity (in the 8-1000 µm range) is more than 1011 solar luminosities. → ultraluminous infrared galaxy.
Fr.: intensité lumineuse
A measure of the amount of light that a point source radiates in a given direction. It is expressed by the luminous flux per unit leaving the source in the direction per unit of solid angle.
mâdde-ye tâbân (#)
Fr.: matière lumineuse
Ordinary baryonic matter that can emit electromagnetic radiation, as opposed to → dark matter.
luminous red nova (LRN)
now-axtar-e sorx-e tâbân
Fr.: nova rouge lumineuse
A stellar explosion thought to be caused by the → merger of stars in a → binary system. They are characterized by a distinct red color, and a → light curve that lingers with resurgent brightness in the → infrared. The luminosity of the explosion is between that of a → supernova and a → nova.
mângi (#), mahi (#)
Of or pertaining to the moon.
From O.Fr. lunaire, from L. lunaris "of the moon," from luna "moon" (with capital L) "moon goddess," from *leuksna- (cf. O.C.S. luna "moon," O.Pruss. lauxnos "stars," M.Ir. luan "light, moon"), from the same source as lux, lumen "light;" cognate with Pers. ruz, → day, rowšan "bright, clear."
Mâh and mâng in Pers. are variants of the same term, the dominant form being
mâh, while mâng (Av. from, see below) is used in classical literature
as well as in some dialects: Tabari, Kurd. mâng, Laki, Tâti, Taeši
Sangesari mung; Mid.Pers. mâh "moon, month;" O.Pers. māha-
"moon, month;" Av. māh- "month, moon," also māwngh-; cf.
Skt. mās- "moon, month;" Gk.
mene "moon," men "month;" L. mensis "month;"
O.C.S. meseci, Lith. menesis "moon, month;" O.Ir. mi,
Welsh mis, Bret. miz "month;"
O.E. mona; E. moon, month; Ger. Mond, Monat;
Du. maan; PIE base *me(n)ses- "moon, month."
Fr.: calendrier lunaire
lâvak-e mâh, ~ mângi, kandâl-e ~
Fr.: cratère lunaire
A → crater on the surface of the Moon.
ruz-e mâng, ~ mângi
Fr.: jour lunaire
The interval between two successive sunrises for an observer standing on the Moon. This is not the rotational period of the Moon, because the Moon-Earth system has moved round the Sun during that period. It is equal to the length of a → synodic month (29.5306 days).
Fr.: poussière lunaire
A fine, powder-like dust covering the Moon's surface. → regolith. It is formed when meteoroids crash on the Moon's surface, heating and pulverizing rocks, which contain silica and metals. Since there is no wind or water to smooth rough edges, the tiny grains are sharp and jagged, and cling to nearly everything. Their main chemical compositions are SiO2 (about 45%) and Al2O3 (about 15%). The dust grains have an average size of 19 microns (40% smaller than hair).
Fr.: éclipse de lune
The → darkening of the → Moon which occurs when the Moon enters the → umbra of the → Earth's shadow. This phenomenon can occur only when the → full Moon is near one of the → lunar nodes of its → orbit around the Earth. There will be a → total eclipse if the entire Moon enters the umbra, otherwise the eclipse will be partial when the Moon is somewhat to the north or south of the node and does not cross the shadow entirely. During the eclipse the Moon looks more or less dark, depending especially on the transparency of the Earth's → atmosphere. The → refraction of Sun's light through the atmosphere sometimes gives a red color to the eclipsed Moon. Colored fringes can be seen around the shadow edge during → partial eclipses. Because an eclipse of the Moon is due to the cutting off of the Sun's light, it is visible from the entire hemisphere where the Moon is above the horizon. The maximum duration of a total lunar eclipse, when the Moon passes through the shadow centrally, is 1h 47m (M.S.: SDE).
lunar ecliptic limit
hadd-e hurpehi-ye mâh
Fr.: limite écliptique de la Lune
The farthest distance from a → lunar orbit node within which, if the Moon happens to be at full, a lunar eclipse may occur. The lunar ecliptic limit extends about 12° on each side of the node.
Fr.: exosphère lunaire
An extremely thin gathering of gas surrounding the → Moon. It is made up of → atoms and → ions generated at the Moon's surface by interaction with → solar radiation, → plasma in the Earth's → magnetosphere, or → micrometeorites.