An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 683
mass-energy equivalence
  هموگ‌ارزی ِ جرم-کاروژ   
hamug-arzi-ye jerm-kâruž

Fr.: équivalence masse-énergie   

The principle of interconversion of mass and energy, described by the → mass-energy relation.

mass; → energy; → equivalence.

mass-energy relation
  باز‌آنش ِ جرم-کاروژ   
bâzâneš-e jerm-kâruž

Fr.: relation masse-énergie   

The famous equation proposed by Einstein as a consequence of his special theory of relativity describing the equivalence of mass and energy: E = mc2, where E is energy, m is the equivalent amount of mass, and c is the velocity of light.

mass; → energy; → relation.

mass-luminosity ratio
  وابر ِ جرم-تابندگی   
vâbar-e jerm-tâbandegi

Fr.: rapport masse-luminosité   

The ratio of the mass of a system, expressed in solar masses, to its visual luminosity, expressed in solar luminosities. The Milky Way Galaxy has a mass-luminosity ratio in its inner regions of about 10, whereas a rich cluster of galaxies such as the Coma Cluster has a mass-luminosity ratio of about 200, indicating the presence of a considerable amount of dark matter.

mass; → luminosity; → ratio.

mass-luminosity relation
  باز‌آنش ِ جرم-تابندگی   
bâzâneš-e jerm-tâbandegi

Fr.: relation masse-luminosité   

A relationship between luminosity and mass for stars that are on the main sequence, specifying how bright a star of a given mass will be. Averaged over the whole main sequence, it has been found that L = M3.5, where both L and M are in solar units. This means, for example, that if the mass is doubled, the luminosity increases more than 10-fold.

mass; → luminosity; → relation.

porjerm (#)

Fr.: massif   

Consisting of or forming a large mass.

From M.Fr. massif (feminine massive) "bulky, solid," from O.Fr. masse "lump."

Porjerm, from por "full, much, very, too much," (Mid.Pers. purr "full;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, from par- "to fill;" PIE base *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru- "much, abundant;" Gk. polus "many," plethos "great number, multitude;" O.E. full) + jerm, → mass.

massive black hole
  سیه‌چال ِ پرجرم   
siyahcâl-e porjerm

Fr.: trou noir massif   

A black hole with a mass between millions and billions of solar masses residing in galactic nuclei. The mass of this type of black holes represents about 0.2% of the bulge mass. When matter is swallowed by the black hole, this gives rise to the tremendous energetic phenomena observed in quasars and active galactic nuclei.

massive; → black hole.

massive close binary
  دورین ِ کیپ ِ پرجرم   
dorin-e kip-e porjerm

Fr.: binaire serrée massive   

A → close binary system composed of two → massive stars.

massive; → close binary star.

massive halo
  هاله‌ی ِ پرجرم   
hâle-ye porjerm

Fr.: halo massif   

Spheroidal distribution of dark matter surrounding a galaxy.

massive; → halo.

massive star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پرجرم   
setâre-ye porjerm (#)

Fr.: étoile massive   

A star whose mass is larger than approximately 10 → solar masses. The → spectral types of massive stars range from about B3 (→ B star) to O2 (→ O star) and include → Wolf-Rayet stars as well as → Luminous Blue Variables. Massive stars are very rare; for each star of 20 solar masses there are some 100,000 stars of 1 solar mass. Despite this rarity, they play a key role in astrophysics. They are major sites of → nucleosynthesis beyond oxygen and, therefore, are mainly responsible for the → chemical evolution of galaxies. Due to their high ultraviolet flux and powerful → stellar winds, they bring about interesting phenomena in the → interstellar medium, like → H II regions, → turbulence, → shocks, → bubbles, and so on. Massive stars are progenitors of → supernovae (→ type Ia, → type Ic and → type II), → neutron stars, and → black holes. The formation processes of massive stars is still an unresolved problem. For massive stars the → accretion time scale is larger than the → Kelvin-Helmholtz time scale. This means that massive stars reach the → main sequence while → accretion is still going on.

massive; → star.

mastar (#)

Fr.: maître   

1) A person with the ability or power to use, control, or dispose of something.
2) An employer of workers or servants.
3) The male head of a household (

M.E. maistre, maister, from O.E. magister, from L. magister "chief, head, director, teacher," ultimately from PIE root *meg- "great," cf. Pers. meh-, as below.

(Aftari) Mastar "elder; larger," (Dari Kermân) mastar "leader, guide," variants (Aftari, Tafreši) mester "elder; great," massar "large, great, high," from (Nâini, Sangesari, Dari Yazd, Kermâni) mas "great, large," variant of meh "great, large, principal," cognate with L. magister "chief, head, director, teacher;" → Big Bang, + comparative suffix -tar.


Fr.: match, partie   

A game or contest in which two or more contestants or teams oppose each other (

Originally "one of a pair, an equal;" O.E mæcca, "companion, mate, one of a pair, wife, husband, an equal," from gemæcca; cf. O.S. gimaco "fellow, equal," O.H.G. gimah "comfort, ease," M.H.G. gemach "comfortable, quiet," Ger. gemach "easy, leisurely."

Kâd, from Mid.Pers. kâdag "game," Sogd. kâtak "game, play;" cf. Kurd. (Sorani) kâya "game," Zazaki kây, Abyâneyi, Anâraki, Nâini kâye, Qohrudi kâda, Shamerzâdi ke, Zefrehi "game, play;" Av. kā- "to take pleasure, desire;" Skt. kā- "to desire, wish."

mâdar (#)

Fr.: mère, matrice   

The body of the → planispheric astrolabe which is a thin circular plate, with a hole in the center. It has a thicker, raised, and graduated edge, called the → limb. The hollow of the mater holds the → tympanum and the rotating → rete. The upper part of the mater carries a jointed ring, called the → throne. By slipping one's thumb into the ring, one raises the instrument so that its weight and symmetrical design keeps it perpendicular to the ground. On the back of the mater are engraved several circular scales (online museo galileo, VirtualMuseum).

From L. mater, → mother.

  ۱) ماده‌ای، مادی، مادیگ؛ ۲) مادیگ   
1) mâdeyi, mâddi, mâdig; 2) mâdig

Fr.: 1, 2) matériel   

1) (adj.) Formed or consisting of matter.
2) (n.) The substance or matter from which something is or can be made, or also items needed for doing or creating something.

From L.L. materialis (adj.) "of or belonging to matter," from L. materia, → matter, + → -al.

Mâdig, from mâd, mâddé, → matter, + -ig, → -ic.

mâddebâvari (#)

Fr.: matérialisme   

Belief that physical matter is the only reality and that everything, including thought, feeling, mind, and will, can be explained in terms of matter and physical phenomena.

N.L. materialismus; → material + -ism.

Mâddebâvari, from mâddé, → matter, + bâvari, from bâvar "belief" (Mid.Pers. wâbar "beleif;" Proto-Iranian *uar- "to choose; to convince; to believe;" cf. Av. var- "to choose; to convince" varəna-, varana- "conviction, faith;" O.Pers. v(a)r- "to choose; to convince;" Skt. vr- "to choose," vara- "choosing").


Fr.: matérialité   

The state or quality of being material.

material; → -ity.

  ۱) مادیگش؛ ۲) مادیگانش   
1) mâdigeš 2) mâdigâneš

Fr.: matérialisation   

The act or process of materializing.

Verbal noun of → materialize.

  ۱) مادیگیدن؛ ۲) مادیگاندن   
1) mâdigidan; 2) mâdigândan

Fr.: 1) se matérialiser; 2) matérialiser   

1a) To come into material form. To take shape.
1b) To form material particles from energy, as in → pair production.
2) To give material form to.

material; → -ize.

  مزداهیک، ریاضی   
mazdâhik (#), riyâzi (#)

Fr.: mathématique   

Of, relating to, or of the nature of mathematics.

mathematics; → -al.

mathematical beauty
  زیبایی ِ مزداهیک   
zibâyi-ye mazdâhik

Fr.: beauté mathématique   

Same as → mathematical elegance.

mathematical; → beauty.

mathematical elegance
  قشنگی ِ مزداهیک   
qašangi-ye mazdâhik

Fr.: élégance mathématique   

A mathematical solution or demonstration when it yields a result in a surprising way (e.g., from apparently unrelated theorems), is short, and is based on fundamental concepts. According to Henri Poincaré, what gives the feeling of elegance "is the harmony of the different parts, their symmetry, and their happy adjustment; it is, in a word, all that introduces order, all that gives them unity, that enables us to obtain a clear comprehension of the whole as well as of the parts. ... Elegance may result from the feeling of surprise caused by the un-looked-for occurrence together of objects not habitually associated. ... Briefly stated, the sentiment of mathematical elegance is nothing but the satisfaction due to some conformity between the solution we wish to discover and the necessities of our mind" (Henri Poincaré, Science and Method, 1908). According to Bertrand Russell, "Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty -- a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show" (Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, 1945).

mathematical; → elegance.

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