An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 679
microscope
  ریزبین، میکروسکوپ   
rizbin (#), mikroskop (#)

Fr.: microscope   

A magnifying optical instrument for inspecting objects too small to be seen or too small to be seen distinctly and in detail by the unaided eye.

From Mod.L. microscopium "an instrument for viewing what is small," from Gk. → micro- + -skopion "means of viewing," from skopein "look at."

Rizbin, from rizmicro- + bin "to see; seer" (present stem of didan; Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see").

microscopic
  ریزبینیک   
rizbinik

Fr.: microscopique   

Being or characterized as exceedingly small; not large enough to be seen with the naked eye. Compare → macroscopic. → macroscopic state.

microscope; → -ic.

microscopic state
  ریز-استات، ریز-حالت   
riz-estât, riz-hâlat

Fr.: état microscopique   

Same as → microstate.

microscopic; → state.

Microscopium
  میکروسکوپ   
mikroskop (#)

Fr.: Microscope   

The Microscope. A minor constellation in autumn southern sky lying just south of → Capricornus at 21h right ascension, 37° south declination. The constellation contains only 4th magnitude or fainter stars. Abbreviation: Mic; genitive: Microscopii.

Microscopium was named by Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762); → microscope.

microstate
  ریز-استات، ریز-حالت   
riz-estât, riz-hâlat

Fr.: micro-état   

Statistical physics: For a system made up of a large number of components, a state of the system which is specified by describing the current dynamical variables of each constituting component. For example, for a gas system composed of a large number of molecules, the microstate is defined by the set of quantities which defines the state of each molecule in the system (position, velocity, vibration, etc.). In practice, it is impossible to know perfectly the microstate of a system. The aim of → statistical physics is to relate the macroscopic (average ) observables (→ pressure, → temperature, → internal energy) to the microstate of the system. Also called → microscopic state. See also → macrostate and → multiplicity.

micro-; → state.

microturbulence
  ریز‌آشوبناکی   
riz-âšubnâki

Fr.: microturbulence   

The → turbulence phenomenon involving relatively smaller physical volumes compared to → macroturbulence. In stellar atmospheres, it is a bulk gas motion with a characteristic size less than the local photon → mean free path. Microturbulence is one of the most significant mechanisms that can cause → line broadening in the stellar spectrum. The presence of microturbulence de-saturates strong lines and increases their → equivalent widths. Microturbulence in → hot stars brings about gas motions with velocities 0-20 km s-1. A physical connection may exist between microturbulence in hot star atmospheres and a subsurface → iron convection zone. Microturbulence may also be at the origin of → wind clumping in hot stars.

micro-; → turbulence.

microwave
  ریزموج   
rizmowj (#)

Fr.: micro-onde   

Electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the 1 to 300 mm range.

micro-; → wave.

microwave background radiation
  تابش ِ پس‌زمینه‌ی ِ ریزموج   
tâbeš-e paszamine-ye rizmowj

Fr.: rayonnement micro-onde du fond cosmique   

Thermal radiation with a temperature of 2.73 K that is apparently uniformly distributed in the Universe. It is believed to be a redshifted remnant of the hot radiation that was in thermal equilibrium with matter during the first hundred thousand years after the Big Bang. Same as → cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.

microwave; → background; → radiation.

microwave radiation
  تابش ِ ریزموج   
tâbeš-e rizmowj (#)

Fr.: rayonnement micro-onde   

Electromagnetic radiation carried by → microwaves.

microwave; → radiation.

mid-
     
miyâni-; nim-, nimé (#)

Fr.: mi-; moyen   

A prefix which means being at or near the middle point of; being or occupying a middle place or position.

M.E., from O.E. midd-, cognate with O.H.G. mitti, O.N. mithr, Gothic midjis, O.Ir. mide, L. medius, Gk. mesos, Skt. mádhya-, Av. maidiia- "middle, the middle," Pers. miyân, as below.

Miyâni, from miyân "within, between, center," from Mid.Pers. mayân "middle; among, between," Av. maidiia- "middle, the middle," maiδiiāna- "middle, center," maδəma- [adj.] "middle, being in the middle; middling, of a middling size or quality," maiδim "in the midst of," cf. Skt. mádhya- "middle, located in the middle;" O.H.G. mitti "located in the middle."
nim-, nimé, → half.

Mid-Atlantic Ridge
  روک ِ میان-اتلسی   
ruk-e miyân Atlasi

Fr.: dorsale médio-atlantique   

An immense chain of underwater mountains that runs down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. The MAR, approximately 500-1000 km wide, extends 16,000 km from Iceland to the Antarctic Circle. The MAR is so high that it actually rises above sea level in many places, forming volcanic islands. The Azores, Ascension, St. Helena, and Iceland all arise from this great Atlantic range. The chain results from the movement of the continental plates. As these plates slowly separate, they leave gaps in the → Earth's crust. This allows molten rock from beneath the Earth's crust to reach the surface and forms a ridge. The MAR is a part of the global → mid-ocean ridge system.

mid-; → Atlantic; → ridge.

mid-infrared
  فروسرخ ِ میانی   
forusorx-e miyâni (#)

Fr.: infrarouge moyen   

The portion of the → electromagnetic radiation lying between the → near-infrared and the → far-infrared. This covers the wavelength range approximately from 8 to 30 → microns. See also: → infrared radiation, → submillimeter radiation.

mid-; → infrared.

mid-ocean ridge
  روک ِ میان-اقیانوسی   
ruk-e miyân-oqyânusi

Fr.: dorsale médio-océanique   

Any of submarine mountain ranges that stretch around the world through the Atlantic Ocean and across the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Such ridges generally stand about 1000 m to 3000 m above the adjacent ocean floor and are about 500-1000 km in width.

mid-; → ocean; → ridge.

midday
  نیمروز   
nimruz (#)

Fr.: midi   

The middle of the day; noon or the time centering around noon.

mid-; → day.

middle
  ۱) میان؛ ۲) میانی   
1) (n.) miyân; 2) (adj.) miyâni

Fr.: 1) milieu; 2) du milieu   

The point, part, position, etc., equidistant from extremes or limits.

M.E., O.E. middel; cf. M.L.G., Du. middel, Ger. mittel, variant mid; cognate with Pers. miyân, as below; from PIE *medhyo-.

1) Miyân "within, between, center," from Mid.Pers. mayân "middle; among, between," Av. maidiia- "middle, the middle," maiδiiāna- "middle, center," maδəma- [adj.] "middle, being in the middle; middling, of a middling size or quality," maiδim "in the midst of," cf. Skt. mádhya- "middle, located in the middle;" O.H.G. mitti "located in the middle."
2) From miyân + suffix -i.

middle atmosphere
  هواسپهر ِ میانی، جو ِ ~   
havâsepehr-e miyâni, javv-e ~

Fr.: atmosphère moyenne   

The region lying between the → troposphere and the → thermosphere comprising the → stratosphere and the → mesosphere (Meteorology Glossary, American Meteorological Society).

middle; → atmosphere.

middle infrared
  فروسرخ ِ میانی   
forusorx-e miyâni (#)

Fr.: infrarouge moyen   

Same as → mid-infrared.

middle; → infrared.

middle latitudes
  وَروناهای ِ میانی   
varunâhâ-ye miyâni

Fr.: latitudes moyennes   

The latitude belt roughly between 35 and 65 degrees North and South. Also referred to as the temperate region.

middle; → latitude.

middle term
  ترم ِ میانی   
tarm-e miyâni

Fr.: moyen terme   

Logic: In a → syllogism, the categorical term occurring in both the → major term and the → minor term.

middle; → term.

midnight
  نیمشب   
nimšab (#)

Fr.: minuit   

Generally, the middle of the night as indicated by twelve o'clock at night.
True midnight: The time when the Sun is closest to nadir and the night is equi-distant from dusk and dawn. The opposite of noon.

From mid- an E. combining form related to → middle; → night.

Nimšab, from nim "mid-, half" (Mid.Pers. nêm, nêmag "half;" Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Skt. néma- "half") + šab, → night

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