An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 712
 magnetic field   میدان ِ مغناتیسی   meydân-e meqnâtisi (#)Fr.: champ magnétique   A field of force that is generated by electric currents, or, equivalently, a region in which magnetic forces can be observed.→ magnetic; → field. magnetic field line   خط ِ میدان ِ مغناتیسی   xatt-e meydân-e meqnâtisi (#)Fr.: ligne de champ magnétique   An imaginary line used for representing the strength and direction of a magnetic field. Charged particles move freely along magnetic field lines, but are inhibited by the magnetic force from moving across field lines.→ magnetic; → field; → line. magnetic field strength   زور ِ میدان ِ مغناتیسی   zur-e meydân-e meqnâtisiFr.: intensité du champs magnétique   Same as → magnetic intensity.→ magnetic; → field; → intensity. magnetic flux   شار ِ مغناتیسی   šâr-e meqnâtisi (#)Fr.: flux magnétique   A measure of the quantity of magnetism or magnetic field. It is the number of lines of force passing normally through a given area. Magnetic flux is a scalar quantity defined as the surface integral of the → magnetic flux density. It is usually denoted by the Greek letter Φ and its SI unit is the → weber.→ magnetic; → flux. magnetic flux density   چگالی ِ شار ِ مغناتیسی   cagâli-ye šâr-e meqnâtisi (#)Fr.: densité du flux magnétique   A vector quantity measuring the strength and direction of the magnetic field. It is the → magnetic flux per unit area of a magnetic field at right angles to the magnetic force. Magnetic flux density is expressed in → teslas. Also called → magnetic induction.→ magnetic; → flux; → density. magnetic helicity   پیچاری ِ مغناتیسی   picâri-ye meqnâtisiFr.: hélicité magnétique   A quantity that measures the extent to which the magnetic field lines wrap and coil around each other. It is closely related to field line topology. Magnetic helicity is defined by: HM = ∫ A . B dV, where A is the vector potential of the magnetic field and the integration is over a volume V. → helicity; → kinetic helicity→ magnetic; → helicity. magnetic inclination   درکیل ِ مغناتیسی   darkil-e meqnâtisiFr.: inclinaison magnétique   Same as → magnetic dip or → dip.→ magnetic; → inclination. magnetic induction   درهازش ِ مغناتیسی   darhâzeš-e meqnâtisiFr.: induction magnétique   1) Same as → magnetic flux density. 2) The production of a magnetic field in a piece of un-magnetized iron or other → ferromagnetic substance when a magnet is brought near it. The magnet causes the individual particles of iron, which act like tiny magnets, to line up so that the sample as a whole becomes magnetized.→ magnetic; → induction. magnetic intensity   درتنویی ِ مغناتیسی   dartanuyi-e meqnâtisiFr.: intensité magnétique   Strength of a magnetic field at a point, denoted H. The force which could be exerted on unit north magnetic pole situated at that point. Measured in oersteds. Same as → magnetic field strength.→ magnetic; → intensity. magnetic massive star   ستاره‌ی ِ پرجرم ِ مغناتیسی   setâre-ye porjerm-e meqnâtisiFr.: étoile massive magnétique   A → stellar magnetic field associated with a → massive star. Magnetic fields are detected only for seven to ten percent of all studied massive → OB stars, and the magnetic field occurrence does not depend on the → spectral type. Because these magnetic fields seem to be stable over long time-scales and their strength does not seem to correlate with known stellar properties, it is assumed that they are of fossil origin (→ fossil magnetic field) and are frozen into the → radiative envelope of the stars. The fields are those of the birth → molecular clouds, partly trapped inside the → pre-main sequence star during the cloud → collapse phase, possibly further enhanced by a → dynamo effect in the early fully convective stellar phase. Typically, the polar field strength ranges from about a hundred → Gauss up to several kiloGauss. However, some weaker fields, below 100 G, have recently been detected. The stellar magnetic field influences many different regions of the star with various effects. In the deep interior of the star, the field influences the internal → mixing of the star and this affects the size of the → convective overshooting region, changing the lifetime of the star by decreasing the amount of fuel for nuclear burning. Magnetic stars can also confine their → stellar winds, due to their strong magnetic fields, into a → magnetosphere, which slows down the → rotational velocity of the star. This → magnetic braking is an efficient mechanism for → angular momentum transport. At the stellar surface, the magnetic fields can create and sustain areas of chemical over- or under-abundances and/or large temperature differences, which are called spots (Buysschaert et al., 2016, astro-ph/1709.02619).→ magnetic; → massive; → star. magnetic meridian   نیمروزان ِ مغناتیسی   nimruzân-e meqnâtisiFr.: méridien magnétique   A meridian passing through the Earth's → magnetic poles.→ magnetic; → meridian. magnetic moment   گشتاور ِ مغناتیسی   gaštâvar-e meqnâtisi (#)Fr.: moment magnétique   1) A measure of the strength of a magnet or current-carrying coil. In the case of a bar magnet it is obtained by multiplying the distance between the two magnetic poles by the average strength of the poles. Same as → magnetic dipole moment See also → dipole moment. 2) A measure of the magnetic flux set up by the gyration of an electric charge in a magnetic field. 3) In atomic and nuclear physics, → spin magnetic moment.→ magnetic; → moment. magnetic monopole   تک‌قطبه‌ی ِ مغناتیسی   takqotbe-ye meqnâtisi (#)Fr.: monopôle magnétique   A hypothetical particle that carries a single → magnetic pole, in contrast to magnets which are north-south pole pairs. These massive particles (billions of times heavier than the → proton) are required by grand unified theories(→ GUTs) to explain the actual matter content of the Universe, particularly the dominance of matter upon → antimatter. However, their existence contradicts → Gauss's law for magnetism.→ magnetic; → monopole. magnetic monopole problem   پراسه‌ی ِ تک‌قطبه‌ی ِ مغناتیسی   parâse-ye takqotbe-ye meqnâtisiFr.: problème du monopôle magnétique   A problem concerning the compatibility of grand unified theories (→ GUTs) with standard cosmology. If standard cosmology was combined with grand unified theories, far too many → magnetic monopoles would have been produced in the early Universe. The → inflation hypothesis aims at explaining the observed scarcity of monopoles. The inflation has deceased their density by a huge factor.→ magnetic; → monopole; → problem. magnetic needle   سوزن ِ مغناتیسی   suzan-e meqnâtisiFr.: aiguille aimantée   A slender → magnet suspended in a magnetic compass on a mounting with little friction; used to indicate the direction of the Earth's → magnetic pole.→ magnetic; → needle. magnetic north pole   قطب ِ هودر ِ مغناتیسی   qotab-e hudar-e meqnâtisiFr.: pôle nord magnétique   A point of the → magnetosphere where the Earth's → magnetic field points vertically downward; in other words it has a 90° → magnetic dip toward the Earth's surface. The magnetic north pole can also be defined as the point toward which the south pole of the → compass needle is directed. The magnetic north pole is different from the → geographic north pole. It is actually hundreds of kilometers south of the geographic north pole. However, this has not always been the case. In the past 150 years it has moved more than 1,000 kilometers. Every 200,000 to 300,000 years the magnetic field of the Earth reverses direction, → magnetic reversal. Since the Earth's magnetic field is not exactly symmetrical, the north and south magnetic poles are not → antipodal.→ magnetic; → north; → pole. magnetic null point   نقطه‌ی ِ نول ِ مغناتیسی   noqte-ye nul-e meqnâtisiFr.: point nul magnétique   A region of the → solar corona where the → magnetic field vanishes.→ magnetic; → null; → point. magnetic permeability   تراوایی ِ مغناتیسی   tarâvâyi-ye meqnâtisi (#)Fr.: perméabilité magnétique   The ratio of the → magnetic induction, B, in the substance to the external magnetic field, H, causing the → induction: μ = B/H. It is measured in henry/meter and is known as absolute permeability. The relative permeability is equal to the ratio of absolute permeability to the permeability of the free space. Thus μr = μ/μ0, where μ0, the permeability of free space has the value 4π x 10-7 henry/meter.→ magnetic; → permeability. magnetic pole   قطب ِ مغناتیسی   qotb-e meqnâtisi (#)Fr.: pôle magnétique   1) The region of a magnet toward which the lines of magnetic force converge (south pole) or from which the lines of force diverge (north pole). 2) Either of the two points on the Earth's surface where the magnetic lines of force converge. They are not aligned with the geographical poles, but shift and do not lie exactly opposite of the other. → magnetic north pole, → magnetic south pole, → magnetic reversal.→ magnetic; → pole. magnetic Prandtl number   عدد ِ پرانتل مغناتیسی   adad-e Prandtl-e meqnâtisiFr.: nombre de Prandtl magnétique   A → dimensionless quantity used in → magnetohydrodynamics to describe the relative balance of → kinematic viscosity to → magnetic diffusion. It is described by: Pr = σμ0ν = ν/η, where σ is the → conductivity of the fluid, μ0 is the → magnetic permeability of the fluid, ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, and η is the → magnetic diffusivity.