qânun-e Malus (#)
Fr.: loi de Malus
If the light wave entering an → analyzer is → linearly polarized, the intensity of the wave emerging from the analyzer is I = k I0 cos2φ, where k is the coefficient of transmission of the analyzer, I0 is the intensity of the incident light, and φ is the angle between the planes of → polarization of the incident light and the light emerging from the analyzer.
Named after Etienne Louis Malus (1775-1812), French physicist who also discovered polarization by reflection at a glass surface (1808); → law.
Fr.: méthod de Mamun
A method for deriving the Earth's size based on
measuring a length of meridian between two points corresponding
to the difference between the respective latitudes. The Abbasid caliph
al-Ma'mun (ruling from 813 to 833 A.D.), appointed two teams of surveyors to this
task. They departed from a place in the
desert of Sinjad (nineteen farsangs from Mosul and forty-three from
Samarra), heading north and south, respectively. They proceeded
until they found that the height of the Sun at noon had increased
(or decreased) by one degree compared to that for the starting point.
Knowing the variation of the Sun's → declination
due to its apparent → annual motion, they could relate
the length of the arc of meridian to the difference between the latitudes of
the two places.
They repeated the measurement a second time, and so found that the length of
one degree of latitude is somewhat between 56 and 57 Arabic miles (Biruni, Tahdid).
360 times this number yielded the Earth's circumference, and from it the radius
The seventh Abbasid caliph Abu Ja'far Abdullâh al-Ma'mûn, son of Hârûn al-Rashîd (786-833 A.D.); → method.
1) mard; 2) martu, ensân
M.E., from O.E. man, mann "human being, person" (O.S., O.H.G. man, Ger. Mann, O.N. maðr, Goth. manna "man"), from PIE base *man-; cf. Skt. mánu-, más- "man, person, husband;" Av. manu- in proper noun Manus-ciθra- (Pers. Manucehr); O.C.S. moži, Russ. muž "man, male."
(Mid.Pers./Mod.Pers.) mard "man," mardom "mankind, people," cognate with mordan "to die," → death; Sogd. martu, marti "man, human;" O.Pers. martiya-; Av. marəta- "mortal, man," maša- "mortal;" cf. Skt. márta- "mortal, man;" Gk. emorten "died;" L. mortalis "subject to death;" PIE base *merto-, *morto-. Ensân, loan from Ar.
To direct or control the use of; to exercise executive, administrative, and supervisory direction of.
Probably from It. maneggiare "to handle, train (a horse)," from L. manus "hand."
Gonârdan, from Mid.Pers vinârtan, variant vinâristan "to organize, arrange, put in order," from vi- "apart, away from" (Av. vi- "apart, away from, out;" O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + âristan, ârâstan "to arrange, adorn;" O.Pers. râs- "to be right, straight, true," râsta- "straight, true" (Mod.Pers. râst "straight, true"), râd- "to prepare," Av. râz- "to direct, put in line, set," Av. razan- "order," Gk. oregein "to stretch out," L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight," Skt. rji- "to make straight or right, arrange, decorate," PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line."
The act or manner of managing; handling, direction, or control.
Verbal noun of → manage.
A person who manages; a person who has controls or directs an institution, a team, a division, or part it.
Agent noun of → manage.
Fr.: ensemble de Mandelbrot
A set of points in the complex plane, the boundary of which forms a fractal with varying shapes at different magnifications. Mathematically, it is the set of all C values for which the iteration zn+1 = zn2 + C, starting from z0 = 0, does not diverge to infinity.
Discovered by Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-) a Polish-born French mathematician, best known as the "father of fractal geometry;" → set.
A movement or action to accomplish a change of position.
From Fr. manoeuvre "manipulation, maneuver," from O.Fr. manovre "manual work," from M.L. manuopera, from manuoperare "work with the hands," from L. manu operari, from manu ablative of manus "hand" + operari "to work," → operate.
Metallic chemical element; symbol Mn. Atomic number 25; atomic weight 54.938; melting point about 1,244°C; boiling point about 1,962°C.
The name derives from the Latin magnes for "magnet" since pyrolusite (MnO2) has magnetic properties. It was discovered by the Swedish pharmacist and chemist Carl-Wilhelm Scheele in 1774.
Manganez, loan from Fr.
1) nemusâr; 2) nemusârdan
Fr.: 1) manifeste; 2) manifester
1) Readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious; apparent;
M.E., from O.Fr. manifest "evident, palpable," or from L. manifestus "plainly apprehensible, clear, apparent, evident;" "proved by direct evidence;" "caught in the act," probably from manus "hand," + -festus "struck; (able to be) seized."
From Torbat-Heydariye-yi nemusâr "evident, conspicuous, visible," from nemu-, nemudan "to show, display" from Mid.Pers. nimūdan, from ne- "down; into;" O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; below; into," → ni-, + mu- (as in âz-mu-dan, â-mu-dan, far-mu-dan, pey-mu-dan, etc.); Av. mā(y)- "to measure," → display, + -sâr a suffix of state, position, similarity.
1) An act of manifesting.
A → topological space in which every point has a → neighborhood which resembles → Euclidean space (Rn), but in which the global structure may be different. An example of a one-dimensional manifold would be a circle; if you zoom around a point the circle looks locally like a line (R1). An example of a two-dimensional manifold would be a sphere; a small portion looks locally like a plane (R2). See also → flat manifold.
O.E. monigfald (Anglian), manigfeald (W.Saxon) "varied in appearance," from manig "many" + -feald "fold."
Baslâ, from bas "many, much" (Mid.Pers. vas "many, much;" O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish") + lâ "fold."
1) rupuš (#); 2) gušté (#)
O.E. mentel "loose, sleeveless cloak," from L. mantellum "cloak," perhaps from a Celtic source.
1) Rupuš "over-garment, cloak," from ru
"surface, face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa-
"growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;"
cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") +
puš "covering, mantle," from
pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers.
pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;"
cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;"
O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked
clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian
parâse-ye N jesm
Fr.: problème à N corps
The mathematical problem of solving the equations of motions of any number of bodies which interact gravitationally. More specifically, to find their positions and velocities at any point in the future or the past, given their present positions, masses, and velocities.
1) naqšé; 2) naqšé bardâri kardan
Fr.: 1) carte, plan; 2) cartographier
1a) A representation usually on a flat surface of an area of the Earth or a
portion of the sky, showing them in their respective forms, sizes, and relationships.
Shortening of M.E. mapemounde "map of the world," from M.L. mappa mundi "map of the world," first element from L. mappa "napkin, cloth" (said to be of Punic origin) + L. mundi "of the world," from mundus "universe, world."
Naqšé "map," from naqš "painting, embroidering, carving," variant of negâštan, negâridan "to paint," negâr "picture, figure," → graph.
Fr.: projection cartographique
The theory and method of transforming the features, geometry, and topology on a sphere surface (in particular the spherical Earth) onto a plane.
Any tree of the genus Acer. The maple leaf is an emblem of Canada.
M.E. mapel, O.E. mapul-, related to O.N. möpurr, O.S. mapulder, M.L.G. mapeldorn.
Afrâ, of Tabari origin.
1) naqšé bardâri; 2) hamtâyeš
Fr.: 1) cartographie; 2) application
1) The process of producing a map.
1) Naqšé bardâri;, → map.
A mature female horse or other equine animal.
M.E., variant of mere, O.E. m(i)ere feminine of mearh "horse," (cognates: O.Sax. meriha, O.Norse merr, Du. merrie, O.H.G. meriha, Ger. Mähre "mare"), probably of Gaulish origin (cf. Irish and Gaelic marc, Welsh march, Breton marh "horse").
Mâdiyân, from mâdé "female," → feminine.
Of or pertaining to the sea; produced by the sea.
From M.E. maryne, from M.Fr. marin, from O.Fr. marin "of the sea, maritime," from L. marinus "of the sea," from mare "sea, the sea, seawater," from PIE *mori- "body of water, lake."
Daryâyi "of, or pertaining to the sea," from daryâ, → sea.