A function, or an element of a set, that dominates others or is greater than all others. In other words, for a function f defined on the interval I, the point M such that for each x on I, f(x)≤ M. See also → minorant.
From Fr. majorant, from majorer "to increase, raise," from L. → major.
Mehân, from mehidan, from meh "great, large," → major.
The greater number, part, or quantity of a whole.
The third largest known → dwarf planet after → Eris and → Pluto. Numbered 136472, and initially called 2005 FYg, it belongs to the → Kuiper belt in the solar system. Discovered in 2005, Makemake is roughly three-quarters of Pluto in size and orbits the Sun in about 310 years.
Named after Makemake "the creator of humanity and god of fertility" in the mythology of the Rapanui, the native people of Easter Island.
durbin-e Maksutof, teleskop-e ~ (#)
Fr.: télescope de Maksutov
A → reflecting telescope incorporating a deeply curved → meniscus, → lens, which corrects the → optical aberrations of the spherical → primary mirror to give high-quality → images over a wide → field of view.
Named for the Russian optical specialist Dmitri Maksutov (1896-1964), who developed the design; → telescope.
Fr.: biais de Malmquist
A selection effect in observational astronomy. If a sample of objects (galaxies, quasars, stars, etc.) is flux-limited, then the observer will see an increase in average luminosity with distance, because the less luminous sources at large distances will not be detected.
Named after the Swedish astronomer Gunnar Malmquist (1893-1982); → bias.
Fr.: correction de Malmquist
A correction introduced into star counts distributed by apparent magnitude.
qânun-e Malus (#)
Fr.: loi de Malus
If the light wave entering an → analyzer is → linearly polarized, the intensity of the wave emerging from the analyzer is I = k I0 cos2φ, where k is the coefficient of transmission of the analyzer, I0 is the intensity of the incident light, and φ is the angle between the planes of → polarization of the incident light and the light emerging from the analyzer.
Named after Etienne Louis Malus (1775-1812), French physicist who also discovered polarization by reflection at a glass surface (1808); → law.
Fr.: méthod de Mamun
A method for deriving the Earth's size based on
measuring a length of meridian between two points corresponding
to the difference between the respective latitudes. The Abbasid caliph
al-Ma'mun (ruling from 813 to 833 A.D.), appointed two teams of surveyors to this
task. They departed from a place in the
desert of Sinjad (nineteen farsangs from Mosul and forty-three from
Samarra), heading north and south, respectively. They proceeded
until they found that the height of the Sun at noon had increased
(or decreased) by one degree compared to that for the starting point.
Knowing the variation of the Sun's → declination
due to its apparent → annual motion, they could relate
the length of the arc of meridian to the difference between the latitudes of
the two places.
They repeated the measurement a second time, and so found that the length of
one degree of latitude is somewhat between 56 and 57 Arabic miles (Biruni, Tahdid).
360 times this number yielded the Earth's circumference, and from it the radius
The seventh Abbasid caliph Abu Ja'far Abdullâh al-Ma'mûn, son of Hârûn al-Rashîd (786-833 A.D.); → method.
1) mard; 2) martu, ensân
M.E., from O.E. man, mann "human being, person" (O.S., O.H.G. man, Ger. Mann, O.N. maðr, Goth. manna "man"), from PIE base *man-; cf. Skt. mánu-, más- "man, person, husband;" Av. manu- in proper noun Manus-ciθra- (Pers. Manucehr); O.C.S. moži, Russ. muž "man, male."
(Mid.Pers./Mod.Pers.) mard "man," mardom "mankind, people," cognate with mordan "to die," → death; Sogd. martu, marti "man, human;" O.Pers. martiya-; Av. marəta- "mortal, man," maša- "mortal;" cf. Skt. márta- "mortal, man;" Gk. emorten "died;" L. mortalis "subject to death;" PIE base *merto-, *morto-. Ensân, loan from Ar.
To direct or control the use of; to exercise executive, administrative, and supervisory direction of.
Probably from It. maneggiare "to handle, train (a horse)," from L. manus "hand."
Gonârdan, from Mid.Pers vinârtan, variant vinâristan "to organize, arrange, put in order," from vi- "apart, away from" (Av. vi- "apart, away from, out;" O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + âristan, ârâstan "to arrange, adorn;" O.Pers. râs- "to be right, straight, true," râsta- "straight, true" (Mod.Pers. râst "straight, true"), râd- "to prepare," Av. râz- "to direct, put in line, set," Av. razan- "order," Gk. oregein "to stretch out," L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight," Skt. rji- "to make straight or right, arrange, decorate," PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line."
The act or manner of managing; handling, direction, or control.
Verbal noun of → manage.
A person who manages; a person who has controls or directs an institution, a team, a division, or part it.
Agent noun of → manage.
Fr.: ensemble de Mandelbrot
A set of points in the complex plane, the boundary of which forms a fractal with varying shapes at different magnifications. Mathematically, it is the set of all C values for which the iteration zn+1 = zn2 + C, starting from z0 = 0, does not diverge to infinity.
Discovered by Benoît Mandelbrot (1924-) a Polish-born French mathematician, best known as the "father of fractal geometry;" → set.
A movement or action to accomplish a change of position.
From Fr. manoeuvre "manipulation, maneuver," from O.Fr. manovre "manual work," from M.L. manuopera, from manuoperare "work with the hands," from L. manu operari, from manu ablative of manus "hand" + operari "to work," → operate.
Metallic chemical element; symbol Mn. Atomic number 25; atomic weight 54.938; melting point about 1,244°C; boiling point about 1,962°C.
The name derives from the Latin magnes for "magnet" since pyrolusite (MnO2) has magnetic properties. It was discovered by the Swedish pharmacist and chemist Carl-Wilhelm Scheele in 1774.
Manganez, loan from Fr.
1) nemusâr; 2) nemusârdan
Fr.: 1) manifeste; 2) manifester
1) Readily perceived by the eye or the understanding; evident; obvious; apparent;
M.E., from O.Fr. manifest "evident, palpable," or from L. manifestus "plainly apprehensible, clear, apparent, evident;" "proved by direct evidence;" "caught in the act," probably from manus "hand," + -festus "struck; (able to be) seized."
From Torbat-Heydariye-yi nemusâr "evident, conspicuous, visible," from nemu-, nemudan "to show, display" from Mid.Pers. nimūdan, from ne- "down; into;" O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; below; into," → ni-, + mu- (as in âz-mu-dan, â-mu-dan, far-mu-dan, pey-mu-dan, etc.); Av. mā(y)- "to measure," → display, + -sâr a suffix of state, position, similarity.
1) An act of manifesting.
A → topological space in which every point has a → neighborhood which resembles → Euclidean space (Rn), but in which the global structure may be different. An example of a one-dimensional manifold would be a circle; if you zoom around a point the circle looks locally like a line (R1). An example of a two-dimensional manifold would be a sphere; a small portion looks locally like a plane (R2). See also → flat manifold.
O.E. monigfald (Anglian), manigfeald (W.Saxon) "varied in appearance," from manig "many" + -feald "fold."
Baslâ, from bas "many, much" (Mid.Pers. vas "many, much;" O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish") + lâ "fold."
1) rupuš (#); 2) gušté (#)
O.E. mentel "loose, sleeveless cloak," from L. mantellum "cloak," perhaps from a Celtic source.
1) Rupuš "over-garment, cloak," from ru
"surface, face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa-
"growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;"
cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") +
puš "covering, mantle," from
pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers.
pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;"
cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;"
O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked
clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian
parâse-ye N jesm
Fr.: problème à N corps
The mathematical problem of solving the equations of motions of any number of bodies which interact gravitationally. More specifically, to find their positions and velocities at any point in the future or the past, given their present positions, masses, and velocities.