An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 696
many-body problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ N جسم   
parâse-ye N jesm

Fr.: problème à N corps   

The mathematical problem of solving the equations of motions of any number of bodies which interact gravitationally. More specifically, to find their positions and velocities at any point in the future or the past, given their present positions, masses, and velocities.

Many, from M.E. mani, meni, O.E. monig, manig; → body; → problem.

map
  ۱) نقشه؛ ۲) نقشه برداری کردن   
1) naqšé; 2) naqšé bardâri kardan

Fr.: 1) carte, plan; 2) cartographier   

1a) A representation usually on a flat surface of an area of the Earth or a portion of the sky, showing them in their respective forms, sizes, and relationships.
1b) Math.: Same as → mapping.
2) To make a map of; show or establish the features of, details of.

Shortening of M.E. mapemounde "map of the world," from M.L. mappa mundi "map of the world," first element from L. mappa "napkin, cloth" (said to be of Punic origin) + L. mundi "of the world," from mundus "universe, world."

Naqšé "map," from naqš "painting, embroidering, carving," variant of negâštan, negâridan "to paint," negâr "picture, figure," → graph.

map projection
  فراشانش ِ نقشه‌نگاری   
farâšâneš-e naqšenegâri

Fr.: projection cartographique   

The theory and method of transforming the features, geometry, and topology on a sphere surface (in particular the spherical Earth) onto a plane.

map; → projection.

maple
  افرا   
afrâ (#)

Fr.: érable   

Any tree of the genus Acer. The maple leaf is an emblem of Canada.

M.E. mapel, O.E. mapul-, related to O.N. möpurr, O.S. mapulder, M.L.G. mapeldorn.

Afrâ, of Tabari origin.

mapping
  ۱) نقشه‌برداری؛ ۲) همتایش   
1) naqšé bardâri; 2) hamtâyeš

Fr.: 1) cartographie; 2) application   

1) The process of producing a map.
2) Math.: The operation of establishing → relations between two → sets in which one element of the second set is assigned to each element of the first set, as the expression y = x2. Same as → function.

Verbal noun from → map + → -ing.

1) Naqšé bardâri;, → map.
2) Hamtâyeš, verbal noun of hamtâyidan literally "folding together, relating units together," from ham- "together," → com-, + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part; single, a single unit of a pair," also a multiplicative suffix; Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part," + infinitive suffix -idan.

mare
  مادیان   
mâdiyân (#)

Fr.: jument   

A mature female horse or other equine animal.

M.E., variant of mere, O.E. m(i)ere feminine of mearh "horse," (cognates: O.Sax. meriha, O.Norse merr, Du. merrie, O.H.G. meriha, Ger. Mähre "mare"), probably of Gaulish origin (cf. Irish and Gaelic marc, Welsh march, Breton marh "horse").

Mâdiyân, from mâdé "female," → feminine.

marine
  دریایی   
daryâyi (#)

Fr.: marin   

Of or pertaining to the sea; produced by the sea.

From M.E. maryne, from M.Fr. marin, from O.Fr. marin "of the sea, maritime," from L. marinus "of the sea," from mare "sea, the sea, seawater," from PIE *mori- "body of water, lake."

Daryâyi "of, or pertaining to the sea," from daryâ, → sea.

mark
  ۱) داج؛ ۲) داجیدن   
1) dâj; 2) dâjidan

Fr.: 1) marque; 2) marquer   

1) A visible impression or trace on something, as a line, cut, dent, stain, or bruise (Dictionary.com).
2) To put a mark or marks on.

M.E., O.E. mearc, merc "boundary, sign, limit, mark" (cf. O.N. merki "boundary, sign," mörk "forest" (which often marked a frontier); O.Fr. merke, Goth. marka "boundary, frontier," Du. merk "mark, brand," Ger. Mark "boundary, boundary land"), from PIE *merg- "edge, boundary, border;" cf. Pers. marz, → frontier.

Dâj, variants dâq "brand, marking; hot," Hamedâni daj "in harvest, the sign placed on a wheat pile indicating not to be touched," dežan "acid, pungent;" Mid.Pers. dâq, dâk "hot," dažitan "to burn, scorch," dažišn "burning;" Av. dag-, daž- "to burn;" cf. Skt. dah- "to burn;" L. fovere "to warm, heat; " Arm. dažan "violent, wild;" Lith. degu "to burn;" O.E. fefor; E. fever. PIE base *dhegh- "to burn."

Markab (α Pegasi)
  مرکب   
Markab

Fr.: Markab   

A blue star of visual magnitude 2.49, the brightest in the constellation → Pegasus. Markab is a relatively hot star of → spectral type B9, with a total luminosity about 200 times that of the Sun, a surface temperature of about 11,000 K, and a radius 4.3 times solar lying 140 light-years away.

Markab seems to be a corruption of Mankab in the original Ar. name of this star Mankib al-faras (منکب‌الفرس) "the horse's shoulder," from mankib "shoulder" + faras "horse," referring to Pegasus in Gk. mythology.

Markarian galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارکاریان   
kahkešân-e Markarian (#)

Fr.: galaxie de Markarian   

A galaxy with abnormally strong emission in the ultraviolet continuum and broad emission lines arising in a bright, semi-stellar nucleus.

Named after B. E. Markarian (1913-1985), an Armenian astronomer who made a catalog of such galaxies (1967-81); → galaxy.

Markarian's chain
  زنجیره‌ی ِ مارکاریان   
zanjire-ye Markarian

Fr.: chaîne de Markarian   

A string of a dozen or so galaxies in the central region of the → Vigo cluster. The chain lies to the right of the cluster's dominant galaxy M87 and extends over nearly 2° on the sky. The chain's brightest galaxies are the lenticulars M84 and M86. At least seven galaxies in the chain appear to move coherently, although others appear to be superposed by chance.

Markarian; → chain.

Markarian's eyes
  چشمهای ِ مارکاریان   
cašmhâ-ye Markarian

Fr.: les yeux de Markarian   

Two → interacting galaxies, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435, located in → Markarian's chain of galaxies in the → Virgo cluster of galaxies. About 50 million → light-years away, the two galaxies are about 100,000 light-years apart. Gravitational → tidal forces from the → close encounter have ripped away at their stars, gas, and dust. The more massive NGC 4438 kept much of the material ripped out in the collision, while material from the smaller NGC 4435 was more easily lost.

Markarian galaxy; → eye.

marker
  داجگر، داجنده   
dâjgar, dâjandé

Fr.: marqueur   

1) An object used to indicate a position, place, or route.
2) A distinctive feature or characteristic indicative of a particular quality or condition.
3) Genetics: An allele used to identify a chromosome or to locate other genes on a genetic map (OxfordDictionaries.com).
4) → biomarker.

mark; → -er.

Markov chain
  زنجیره‌ی ِ مارکوف   
zanjire-ye Markov (#)

Fr.: chaîne de Markov   

A → stochastic process, based on the classical → random walk concept, in which the probabilities of occurrence of various future states depend only on the previous state of the system and not on any of earlier states. Also called Markov process and Markovian principle.

Named after Andrey Andreyevich Markov (1856-1922), a Russian mathematician, who introduced this model in 1906; → chain.

Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)
  روش ِ مونت کارلو با زنجیره‌ی ِ مارکوف   
raveš-e Monte Carlo bâ zanjire-ye Markov

Fr.: Méthode de Monte-Carlo par chaînes de Markov   

A method for sampling from → probability distributions using → Markov chains. MCMC methods are widely used in data modeling for → Bayesian inference and numerical integration in physics, chemistry, biology, statistics, and computer science.

Markov chain; → Monte Carlo Method.

Mars
  بهرام   
Bahrâm (#)

Fr.: Mars   

Fourth planet from Sun and the seventh largest. Mass 6.42 × 1026 g (0.11 Earth's); radius 3397 km. Mean distance from Sun 1.52 A.U.. Sidereal period 687 days; synodic period 779.9 days. Surface temperature 248 K., rotational period 24h37m22s.6. Obliquity 23°59'. Atmosphere more than 90% CO2, traces of O2, CO, H2O. Two tiny satellites (Phobos and Deimos), both of which are locked in synchronous rotation with Mars.

Late M.E., from L. Mars the Roman god of war, Ares in Gk. mythology.

Bahrâm, from Mid.Pers. Vahrâm, from Vahrân "god of victory," from Av. vərəθraγna- "victory, breaking the defence, the god of victory." The first element vərəθra- "shield, defensive power," cf. Skt. vrtrá- "defence, name of a demon slain by Indra," Arm. vahagan name of a god (loanword from Iranian). The second element γna-, from Av., also O.Pers., jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Mod.Pers. zadan, zan- "to strike, beat;" Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike," phonos "murder;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill."

Mars datum
  فرازبن ِ بهرام   
farâzbon-e Bahrâm

Fr.:   

The → zero point of elevation on Mars. It is the elevation at which the atmosphere pressure is 6.1 millibars, or 610 → Pascals. Atmosphere pressure has to be used because Mars has no ocean, and "sea level" cannot be used like on Earth. More formally, the datum is a fourth-order, fourth-degree surface of equal → gravitational potential (determined from the Viking orbiter spacecraft) such that the pressure of the atmosphere is 6.1 millibars (source: Lunar and Planetary Institute, USRA).

Mars; → datum.

Mars Trojan
  ترویایی ِ بهرام   
troyâ-yi-ye Bahrâm

Fr.: trojan de Mars   

A member of the family of → asteroids located at either of the stable → Lagrangian points (L4 or L5) of the orbit of → Mars.

Mars; → Trojan asteroid.

Martian
  بهرامی، مریخی   
Bahrâmi (#), Merixi (#)

Fr.: martien   

Of, relating to, or like the planet → Mars.

M.E. marcien, from L. Marti(us) of, belonging to → Mars + -an a suffix of adjectives.

Martian meteorite
  شخانه‌ی ِ بهرامی، شهاب‌سنگ ِ ~   
šaxâne-ye Bahrâmi, šahâbsang-e ~

Fr.: météorite martienne   

A piece of rock that was ejected from the Martian surface into space by the impact of an asteroid or comet, and landed on Earth. So far about 100 Martian meteorites have been collected. These meteorites have elemental and isotopic compositions that match those of the Martian crust as measured by NASA's Mars exploration missions.

Martian; → meteorite.

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