1) naqšé; 2) naqšé bardâri kardan
Fr.: 1) carte, plan; 2) cartographier
1a) A representation usually on a flat surface of an area of the Earth or a
portion of the sky, showing them in their respective forms, sizes, and relationships.
Shortening of M.E. mapemounde "map of the world," from M.L. mappa mundi "map of the world," first element from L. mappa "napkin, cloth" (said to be of Punic origin) + L. mundi "of the world," from mundus "universe, world."
Naqšé "map," from naqš "painting, embroidering, carving," variant of negâštan, negâridan "to paint," negâr "picture, figure," → graph.
Fr.: projection cartographique
The theory and method of transforming the features, geometry, and topology on a sphere surface (in particular the spherical Earth) onto a plane.
Any tree of the genus Acer. The maple leaf is an emblem of Canada.
M.E. mapel, O.E. mapul-, related to O.N. möpurr, O.S. mapulder, M.L.G. mapeldorn.
Afrâ, of Tabari origin.
1) naqšé bardâri; 2) hamtâyeš
Fr.: 1) cartographie; 2) application
1) The process of producing a map.
1) Naqšé bardâri;, → map.
A mature female horse or other equine animal.
M.E., variant of mere, O.E. m(i)ere feminine of mearh "horse," (cognates: O.Sax. meriha, O.Norse merr, Du. merrie, O.H.G. meriha, Ger. Mähre "mare"), probably of Gaulish origin (cf. Irish and Gaelic marc, Welsh march, Breton marh "horse").
Mâdiyân, from mâdé "female," → feminine.
Of or pertaining to the sea; produced by the sea.
From M.E. maryne, from M.Fr. marin, from O.Fr. marin "of the sea, maritime," from L. marinus "of the sea," from mare "sea, the sea, seawater," from PIE *mori- "body of water, lake."
Daryâyi "of, or pertaining to the sea," from daryâ, → sea.
1) dâj; 2) dâjidan
Fr.: 1) marque; 2) marquer
1) A visible impression or trace on something, as a line, cut, dent, stain, or bruise
M.E., O.E. mearc, merc "boundary, sign, limit, mark" (cf. O.N. merki "boundary, sign," mörk "forest" (which often marked a frontier); O.Fr. merke, Goth. marka "boundary, frontier," Du. merk "mark, brand," Ger. Mark "boundary, boundary land"), from PIE *merg- "edge, boundary, border;" cf. Pers. marz, → frontier.
Dâj, variants dâq "brand, marking; hot," Hamedâni daj "in harvest, the sign placed on a wheat pile indicating not to be touched," dežan "acid, pungent;" Mid.Pers. dâq, dâk "hot," dažitan "to burn, scorch," dažišn "burning;" Av. dag-, daž- "to burn;" cf. Skt. dah- "to burn;" L. fovere "to warm, heat; " Arm. dažan "violent, wild;" Lith. degu "to burn;" O.E. fefor; E. fever. PIE base *dhegh- "to burn."
Markab (α Pegasi)
A blue star of visual magnitude 2.49, the brightest in the constellation → Pegasus. Markab is a relatively hot star of → spectral type B9, with a total luminosity about 200 times that of the Sun, a surface temperature of about 11,000 K, and a radius 4.3 times solar lying 140 light-years away.
Markab seems to be a corruption of Mankab in the original Ar. name of
this star Mankib al-faras (
kahkešân-e Markarian (#)
Fr.: galaxie de Markarian
A galaxy with abnormally strong emission in the ultraviolet continuum and broad emission lines arising in a bright, semi-stellar nucleus.
Named after B. E. Markarian (1913-1985), an Armenian astronomer who made a catalog of such galaxies (1967-81); → galaxy.
Fr.: chaîne de Markarian
A string of a dozen or so galaxies in the central region of the → Vigo cluster. The chain lies to the right of the cluster's dominant galaxy M87 and extends over nearly 2° on the sky. The chain's brightest galaxies are the lenticulars M84 and M86. At least seven galaxies in the chain appear to move coherently, although others appear to be superposed by chance.
Fr.: les yeux de Markarian
Two → interacting galaxies, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435, located in → Markarian's chain of galaxies in the → Virgo cluster of galaxies. About 50 million → light-years away, the two galaxies are about 100,000 light-years apart. Gravitational → tidal forces from the → close encounter have ripped away at their stars, gas, and dust. The more massive NGC 4438 kept much of the material ripped out in the collision, while material from the smaller NGC 4435 was more easily lost.
1) An object used to indicate a position, place, or route.
zanjire-ye Markov (#)
Fr.: chaîne de Markov
A → stochastic process, based on the classical → random walk concept, in which the probabilities of occurrence of various future states depend only on the previous state of the system and not on any of earlier states. Also called Markov process and Markovian principle.
Named after Andrey Andreyevich Markov (1856-1922), a Russian mathematician, who introduced this model in 1906; → chain.
Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC)
raveš-e Monte Carlo bâ zanjire-ye Markov
Fr.: Méthode de Monte-Carlo par chaînes de Markov
A method for sampling from → probability distributions using → Markov chains. MCMC methods are widely used in data modeling for → Bayesian inference and numerical integration in physics, chemistry, biology, statistics, and computer science.
Fourth planet from Sun and the seventh largest. Mass 6.42 × 1026 g (0.11 Earth's); radius 3397 km. Mean distance from Sun 1.52 A.U.. Sidereal period 687 days; synodic period 779.9 days. Surface temperature 248 K., rotational period 24h37m22s.6. Obliquity 23°59'. Atmosphere more than 90% CO2, traces of O2, CO, H2O. Two tiny satellites (Phobos and Deimos), both of which are locked in synchronous rotation with Mars.
Late M.E., from L. Mars the Roman god of war, Ares in Gk. mythology.
Bahrâm, from Mid.Pers. Vahrâm, from Vahrân "god of victory," from Av. vərəθraγna- "victory, breaking the defence, the god of victory." The first element vərəθra- "shield, defensive power," cf. Skt. vrtrá- "defence, name of a demon slain by Indra," Arm. vahagan name of a god (loanword from Iranian). The second element γna-, from Av., also O.Pers., jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Mod.Pers. zadan, zan- "to strike, beat;" Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike," phonos "murder;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill."
The → zero point of elevation on Mars. It is the elevation at which the atmosphere pressure is 6.1 millibars, or 610 → Pascals. Atmosphere pressure has to be used because Mars has no ocean, and "sea level" cannot be used like on Earth. More formally, the datum is a fourth-order, fourth-degree surface of equal → gravitational potential (determined from the Viking orbiter spacecraft) such that the pressure of the atmosphere is 6.1 millibars (source: Lunar and Planetary Institute, USRA).
Fr.: trojan de Mars
Bahrâmi (#), Merixi (#)
Of, relating to, or like the planet → Mars.
M.E. marcien, from L. Marti(us) of, belonging to → Mars + -an a suffix of adjectives.
šaxâne-ye Bahrâmi, šahâbsang-e ~
Fr.: météorite martienne
A piece of rock that was ejected from the Martian surface into space by the impact of an asteroid or comet, and landed on Earth. So far about 100 Martian meteorites have been collected. These meteorites have elemental and isotopic compositions that match those of the Martian crust as measured by NASA's Mars exploration missions.
Fr.: plume de Mars
A slender, cloudy projection sometimes seen to extend from the surface of → Mars to very high altitudes. Noted and confirmed by amateur astronomers on photos of Mars in March 2012, possibly similar plumes have been found on archived images as far back as 1997. The plumes reach 200 km up, which seems too high for them to be related to wind-blown surface dust. Since one plume lasted for more than 10 days, it seemed too long lasting to be related to → aurora. The origin of this phenomenon is not yet known.