An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 379
navigational astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ ناورانی   
axtaršenâsi-ye nâvrâni

Fr.: astronomie nautique   

Same as → nautical astronomy.

Navigational, adj. of navigation, from L. navigationem (nom. navigatio), from navigatus, p.p. of navigare "to sail, steer a ship," from navis "ship," cognate with Pers. nâv "ship," as below, + root of agere "to drive," → act; → astronomy.

Axtaršenâsiastronomy; nâvrâni "navigation," from nâv "ship;" O.Pers./Av. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" cf. Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat" + râni verbal noun of rândan "to drive, to cause to go," causative of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

neap tide
  کهکشند   
kehkešand (#)

Fr.: marée de morte-eau   

Tide which occurs during the → first quarter and → third quarter of the → Moon when the pull of the Sun is at → right angles to that of the Moon.

Neap, from M.E. neep, from O.E. nepflod "neap tide" + → tide.

Kehkešan "small tide," from keh- "small, little," → low, + kešand, → tide.

near
  نزدیک   
nazdik (#)

Fr.: proche   

Close; to a point or place not far away.

O.E. near "closer, nearer," comparative of neah, neh "nigh."

Nazdik, from Mid.Pers. nazdik "near," from nazd "close" (Mid.Pers. nazd, nazdik "near," nazdist "first;" O.Pers. ašna- "close;" Av. nazdišta- "nearest, next," nazdyo "nearer to," nas- "to come near, approach, reach;" cf. Skt. nédīyas- "closer, very close," nas- "to approach, to reach") + -ik, → -ic.

near ultraviolet
  فرابنفش ِ نزدیک   
farâbanafš-e nazdik (#)

Fr.: proche ultraviolet   

The longest wavelengths of the ultraviolet region, which are adjacent to the visible, from 200 to 350 nm.

near; → ultraviolet.

near-Earth asteroid (NEA)
  سیارک ِ زمین-نزدیک   
sayyârak-e zamin-nazdik

Fr.: astéroïde géocroiseur   

An → asteroid whose orbit lies partly between 0.983 and 1.3 → astronomical units from the Sun, so that it passes close to the Earth. Currently thousands of near-Earth asteroids are known, ranging in size up to about 30 km. Among them, there are between 500 and 1,000 such asteroids larger than one km in diameter. They are divided into three subclasses: → Amor asteroids, → Apollo asteroids, and → Aten asteroids. See also → near-Earth object.

near; → earth; → asteroid.

near-Earth object (NEO)
  بر‌آخت ِ زمین-نزدیک   
barâxt-e zamin-nazdik

Fr.: géocroiseur   

An → asteroid, → comet, or large → meteoroid whose orbit brings it exceptionally close to the Earth, and which may therefore pose a collision danger. Most such objects are in orbits around the Sun with → perihelion distance less than 1.3 → astronomical units. See also → near-Earth asteroid.

near; → earth; → object.

near-infrared
  فروسرخ ِ نزدیک   
forusorx-e nazdik (#)

Fr.: proche infrarouge   

That region of the → electromagnetic spectrum covering shorter infrared wavelengths. It contains the → infrared windows between about 0.8 and 8 → microns, but the longer wavelength limit is not well defined. See also: → infrared radiation, → mid-infrared, → far-infrared, → submillimeter radiation.

near; → infrared.

nebula
  میغ   
miq (#)

Fr.: nébuleuse   

1) A cloud of gas and dust in the interstellar space. There are three general types: → emission nebulae, → reflection nebulae, and → dark nebulae.
2) A celestial body appearing nebulous or fuzzy when seen with the telescope. Formerly, galaxies, which appeared nebular but are constituted of billions of stars, were not distinguished from truly nebular objects, made of gas and dust.

From L. nebula "mist," nimbus "rainstorm, rain cloud;" cognate with Av. napta- "moist," nabās-câ- "cloud," nabah- "sky;" Pers. nam "moisture;" cf. Gk. nephos "cloud, mass of clouds," nephele "cloud;" Skt. nábhas- "moisture, cloud, mist;" O.H.G. nebul; Ger. Nebel "fog;" O.E. nifol "dark;" PIE base *nebh- "cloud, vapor, fog, moist, sky."

Miq "nebula" (used by Tusi, in Pers. translation of Sufi's "Book of Fixed Stars"), variants meh "fog," mož, Tabari miyâ, Lori/Laki (kara) mozy, Ossetic mig/megæ, from Mid.Pers. mēq "cloud, mist;" Av. mēγa- "cloud;" cf. Skt. meghá- "cloud, overcast weather;" Gk. omikhle "mist;" Lith. miglà "mist, haze;" PIE base *mighlā- "cloud."

nebular
  میغی   
miqi

Fr.: nébulaire   

Of or relating to or resembling a → nebula.

nebula + → -ar.

nebular continuum
  پیوستار ِ میغی   
peyvastâr-e miqi

Fr.: continuum nébulaire   

The part of a nebular object's → spectrum that is created by → free-free emission.

nebular; → continuum.

nebular hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ میغ   
engâre-ye miq

Fr.: hypothèse nébulaire   

The hypothesis first put forward in the 18-th century that the solar system formed from a primeval nebula around the Sun. Same as the → Kant-Laplace hypothesis.

nebular; → hypothesis.

nebular line
  خط ِ میغی   
xatt-e miqi

Fr.: raie nébulaire   

A → forbidden line that is found in the spectra of → interstellar  → ionized gas. The nebular lines are emitted by several atomic species (e.g. O, O+, O++, N+, S++) and correspond to the → transition from the electronic → metastable state 1D to the → ground state  3P. Examples are the doubly ionized oxygen lines [O III] at 4959 and 5007 Å. See also → auroral line; → transauroral line.

nebular; → line.

nebular variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ میغی   
vartande-ye miqi

Fr.: variable nébulaire   

A type of eruptive variable star, mainly young FU Orionis and T Tauri types, associated with nebulosity.

nebular; → variable.

nebulium
  نبولیوم   
nebuliom (#)

Fr.: nébulium   

A hypothetical element, the existence of which was postulated in the nineteenth century to account for unidentified emission lines (e.g. at 3727 and 5007 Å) in the spectra of some luminous nebulae. It was also believed that this element had a small atomic weight. However, the advances of chemistry and physics showed that all the light elements were known and there was no place for this elusive element. Those unidentified lines have now been shown to come from known elements, but they are not usually observable under laboratory conditions. → forbidden lines.

From nebul(a), → nebula, + -ium L. neuter suffix.

nebulosity
  میغ‌ناکی   
miqnâki

Fr.: nébulosité   

1) A nebulous form, shape, or mass.
2) The state or condition of being nebulous.
3) A fuzzy celestial object, constituted of gas and dust, generally part of a larger → nebula.

nebulous; → -ity.

nebulous
  میغ‌ناک   
miqnâk

Fr.: nébuleux   

1) Hazy, vague, indistinct, or confused.
2) Cloudy or cloudlike.
3) Of or resembling a nebula or nebulae; nebular (Dictionary.com).

nebula; → -ous.

necessary
  بایسته   
bâyesté (#)

Fr.: nécessaire   

1) Being essential or indispensable.
2) Logic, Math.: A condition which must hold for a result to be true, but which does not guarantee it to be true. → if and only if.

M.E. necessaire, from L. necessarius "unavoidable," , from necesse "unavoidable, indispensable," from ne- "not," → un-, + cedere "to withdraw, go away, yield," → precession.

Bâyesté, p.p. of bây-, bâyestan "to be necessary," from Mid.Pers. abây-, abâyistan "to be necessary" (abâyišn "necessity," abâyišnig "necessary"), from Proto-Ir. *upa-aya- "to reach," from upa-, → hypo-, + ay- "to go, to come," → precession.

necessary and sufficient conditions
  بوتارهای ِ بایسته و بسنده   
butârhâ-ye bâyesté o basandé

Fr.: conditions nécessaire et suffisante   

If event A must occur for event B to occur, then it is said that A is → necessary for B. If event A may cause B but there could be some other cause as well, then it is said that A is sufficient to cause B. See also → if and only if (iff).

necessary; → and; → sufficient; → condition.

necessary truth
  راستینی ِ بایسته   
râstini-ye bâyesté

Fr.: vérité nécessaire   

Logic: A → proposition if its → denial is self-contradictory. Also called "logical truth" and "non-contingent truth."

necessary; → truth.

necessity
  بایستگی   
bâyestegi (#)

Fr.: nécessité   

1) The fact of being necessary or indispensable.
2) Something necessary or indispensable.

necessary; → -ity.

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