An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 397
Orion Nebula
  میغِ شکارگر، ~ ِ ا ُریون   
miq-e Šekârgar, ~ Oryon

Fr.: Nébuleuse d'Orion   

The best known → ionized nebula and one of the nearest regions to the Sun in which stars are presently being formed. It is visible to the naked eye in the constellation → Orion south of → Orion's Belt as a fuzzy patch. It lies about 1,500 → light-years away and measures about 30 light-years across. The Orion Nebula is ionized and made visible by a small group of → O-type and → B-type stars known as the → Trapezium cluster. Other designations: M 42, NGC 1976. See also: → Orion molecular cloud; → Huygens Region ; → Orion association; → Orion Bar; → Orion Bright Bar.

Orion; → nebula.

Orion OB1 Association
  آهزش ِ OB1 شکارگر، ~ ~ اریون   
âhazeš-e OB1 Šekârgar, ~ ~ Oryon

Fr.: Association Orion OB1   

An → OB association consisting of several dozen → hot stars of → spectral types O and B (→ O star, → B star). The Orion OB1 association consists of several subgroups, first divided by Blaauw (1964) into four subgroups. The subgroups differ in age and gas and dust content:
Orin OB1a, which contains the stars to the northwest of → Orion's Belt stars. Within this group lies another subgroup, known as the → 25 Orionis group;
Orion OB1b, containing the group of stars located in and around the Belt;
Orion OB1c, including the stars around → Orion's Sword; and
Orion OB1d, which contains the stars in and close to the → Orion Nebula (including the → Trapezium cluster).

Orion; → OB association.

Orion Spur
  شخاک ِ شکارگر   
šaxâk-e šekârgar

Fr.: éperon d'Orion   

Same as → Orion Arm.

Orion; → → spur.

Orion's Belt
  کمربندِ شکارگر، ~ اُریون   
kamarband-e Šekârgar, ~ Orion

Fr.: Ceinture d'Orion   

Three prominent stars in the central regions of the constellation → Orion that align to form the "belt" of the mythological Hunter. They are → Alnitak (ζ Ori), → Alnilam (ε Ori), and → Mintaka (δ Ori). The easternmost star Alnitak is separated from the middle one, Alnilam, by 1°.36, and the westernmost Mintaka has an angular distance of 1°.23 from Alnilam. Their distance is between 800 and 1,300 → light-years from Earth. They probably formed inside the same → molecular cloud less than 10 million years ago.

Orion; → belt.

Orion's Sword
  شمشیر ِ شکارگر، ~ اریون   
Šamšir-e Šekârgar, ~ Oryon

Fr.: Epée d'Orion   

An astronomical → asterism in the constellation → Orion forming an almost vertical line beneath → Orion's Belt. From north to south, the most prominent objects in the Sword are the cluster NGC 1981, the star → 42 Orionis, the famous → Orion Nebula, and the Sword's brightest star → Iota Orionis (→ Hatsya). None of these objects is particularly bright in itself, but their proximity to one another and the nebulosity across much of this region makes the Sword stand out clearly in the night sky.

Orion; → sword.

Orion-Cygnus Arm
  بازوی ِ شکارگر-ماکیان   
bâzu-ye šekârgar-mâkiyân

Fr.: bras Orion-Cygne   

Same as → Orion Arm.

Orion; → Cygnus; → arm.

Orionids
  شکارگریان   
Šekârgariyân

Fr.: orionides   

A meteor shower that appears to emanate from the constellation → Orion. It peaks between October 14 and 20 with about 20 meteors per hour.

Orion + → -ides.

orphan
  یتیم   
yatim (#)

Fr.: orphelin   

1) A child who has lost both parents through death, or, less commonly, one parent.
2) A young animal that has been deserted by or has lost its mother (Dictionary.com). → orphaned protostar.

M.E., from L.L. orphanus "destitute, without parents," from Gk. orphanos "bereaved;" akin to L. orbus "bereaved," Skt. arbhah "weak, child," Armenian orb "orphan," O.Irish orbe "heir," O.C.S. rabu "slave," Ger. Erbe, O.E. ierfa "heir," O.H.G. arabeit, Ger. Arbeit "work," O.E. earfoδ "hardship, suffering, trouble."

Yatim "fatherless," from Ar.

orphaned protostar
  پوروا-ستاره‌ی ِ یتیم   
purvâ-setâre-ye yatim

Fr.: proto-étoile orpheline   

A → protostellar object which has been dynamically ejected from a newborn → multiple star system, either into a tenuously bound orbit or into an escape, thus depriving it from gaining much additional mass. Recent observations have shown that → Class I protostellar sources have a population of distant companions at separations ~ 1000 to 5000 → astronomical unit (AU)s. Moreover, the companion fraction diminishes as the sources evolve. According to N-body simulations of unstable → triple systems embedded in dense cloud cores, many companions are ejected into unbound orbits and quickly escape, but others are ejected with insufficient momentum to climb out of the potential well of the cloud core and associated binary. These loosely bound companions reach distances of many thousands of AU before falling back and eventually being ejected into escapes as the cloud cores gradually disappear (B. Reipurth et al. 2010, arXiv:1010.3307).

orphan; → protostar.

orrery
  اُرِری   
oreri

Fr.: planétaire   

A mechanical device that illustrates the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the solar system in heliocentric model.

Named after Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery (1676-1731), for whom the device was first made.

ortho-
  اردا-   
ardâ-

Fr.: ortho-   

Prefix denoting right, straight, correct.
Prefix indicating that an organic compound contains a benzene ring substituted in the 1.2 position.

Ortho-, from Gk. orthos "set upright, straight, true, correct, regular;" cf. L. arduus "high, steep," O.Ir. ard "high;" also cognate with Av. ərəduua-, as below; from PIE *eredh- "high."

Ardâ-, from Av. ərəduua- "upright, erect, risen;" cf. Skt. ūrdhvá- "upright, tending upward, high;" Gk. ortho, as above.

ortho-water
  اردا-آب   
adrdâ-âb

Fr.: eau ortho   

The → water molecule in which the → nuclear spin of the constituent → hydrogen atoms are → parallel (→ orthohydrogen). In astrophysics the ratio between ortho- and → para-water is used to determine temperatures in → interstellar medium.

ortho-; → water.

orthocenter
  اردامرکز   
ardâmarkaz

Fr.: orthocentre   

Of a triangle, the point where the three → altitudes of the → triangle converge.

ortho-; → center.

orthogonal
  ارداکنج   
ardâkonj

Fr.: orthogonal   

In elementary geometry, pertaining to or involving right angles or perpendiculars.
Of a system of real functions, defined so that the integral of the product of any two different functions is zero.
Of a linear transformation, defined so that the length of a vector under the transformation equals the length of the original vector.
Of a square matrix, defined so that its product with its transpose results in the identity matrix.

ortho- + gonia "angle," related to gony "knee;" L. genu "knee;" Mod.Pers. zânu "knee;" Av. žnav-, žnu- "knee;" Skt. janu-; PIE base *g(e)neu-, see below, + → -al

Ardâkonj, from ardâ-, → ortho-, + konj "angle, corner, confined place" (variants xong "corner, angle," Tabari kânj, Kurd. kunj, Hamadâni kom), maybe from the PIE base *g(e)neu-, as above, and related to Mod.Pers. zânu "knee" (Av. žnu-), Skt. kona- "angle, corner," Gk. gony, gonia, L. cuneus "a wedge," Albanian (Gheg dialect) kân "angle, corner," Albanian (Toks) kënd "angle, corner."

orthogonal functions
  کریاهایِ ارداکنج   
karyâhâ-ye ardâkonj

Fr.: fonctions orthogonales   

A set of functions, any two of which, by analogy to orthogonal vectors, vanish if their product is summed by integration over a specified interval.

orthogonal; → function.

orthogonal lines
  خط‌هایِ ارداکنج   
xatthâ-ye ardâkonj

Fr.: droites orthogonales   

Perpendicular lines.

orthogonal; → line.

orthogonal trajectory
  ترایشانه‌ی ِ ارداکنج   
tarâyešâne-ye ardâkonj

Fr.: trajectoire orthogonale   

Math.: An → isogonal trajectory where the family of curves are cut at right angles.

orthogonal; → trajectory.

orthogonal vectors
  بردارهای ِ ارداکنج   
bordârhâ-ye ardâkonj

Fr.: vecteurs orthogonaux   

Two non-zero vectors which are perpendicular, i.e. their → scalar product is zero.

orthogonal; → vector.

orthogonality
  ارداکنجی   
ardâkonji

Fr.: orthogonalité   

1) The property of → orthogonal functions.
2) The following conditions satisfied by the → Fourier series:
∫ cos (mx) sin (nx) dx = 0 (summed from -π to +π) for all m, n
∫ cos (mx) cos (nx) dx = 0 (summed from -π to +π) for all m ≠ n, = 2π for m = n = 0, = π for (m = n) > 0
∫ sin (mx) sin (nx) dx = 0 (summed from -π to +π) for m ≠ n, = π for (m = n) > 0.

orthogonal; → -ity.

orthohydrogen
  اردا-هیدروژن   
ardâ-hidrožen

Fr.: orthohydrogène   

Molecular hydrogen in which the nuclei (protons) of the two hydrogen atoms contained in the molecule have spins in the same direction. → parahydrogen

ortho-; → hydrogen.

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