An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1039
philosophy of science
  فلسفه‌ی ِ دانش   
falsafe-ye dâneš (#)

Fr.: philosophie des sciences   

The critical study of the basic principles and concepts of a particular branch of  knowledge. The philosophy of science is particularly concerned with the nature of scientific facts, the structure of scientific statements, and relations between them.

philosophy; → science.

phlogiston
  فلوژیستون   
fložiston (#)

Fr.: phlogiston   

A hypothetical substance that, prior to the discovery of → oxygen, was thought to be released during → combustion. → phlogiston theory.

From New Latin, from Gk. phlogiston, neuter of phlogistos "inflammable, burnt up," from phlogizein "to set on fire, burn," from phlox "flame, blaze;" from PIE root *bhel- "to shine, burn."

Fložiston, loan from Fr, as above.

phlogiston theory
  نگره‌ی ِ فلوژیستون   
negare-ye fložiston

Fr.: phlogistique   

An obsolete theory of combustion in which all flammable objects were supposed to contain a substance called → phlogiston, which was released when the object burned. The existence of this hypothetical substance was proposed in 1669 by Johann Becher, who called it terra pinguis "fat earth." For example, as wood burns it releases phlogiston into the air, leaving ash behind. Ash was therefore wood minus phlogiston. In the early 18th century Georg Stahl renamed the substance phlogiston. The theory was disproved by Antoine Lavoisier in 1783, who proved the principle of conservation of mass, refuted the phlogiston theory and proposed the oxygen theory of burning.

phlogiston; → theory.

Phobos
  فوبوس   
Fobos (#)

Fr.: Phobos   

The inner → satellite of → Mars orbiting less than 6,000 km above the surface of Mars, closer to its → primary than any other → moon in the → solar system. Phobos is irregularly shaped, 27 x 22 x 18 km in size and orbits Mars in 0.319 days. Phobos' orbit is decaying at a rate of about 2 centimeters per year; it is therefore expected to break up and crash onto Mars within the next 50 million years. See also: → Roche limit, → orbit decay.

In Gk. mythology, Phobos is one of the sons of Ares (Mars) and Aphrodite (Venus). The name means "fear, panic, flight."

Phoebe
  فویءبه   
Foebé (#)

Fr.: Phoebé   

The outermost of Saturn's known satellites, also known as Saturn IX. It is 220 km in diameter and orbits Saturn in 550.5 days at a distance of 12,952,000 km.

In Gk. mythology, Phoebe is the daughter of Uranus and Gaia; grandmother of Apollo and Artemis.

Phoebe ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ فو‌ءبه   
halqe-ye Phoebe

Fr.: anneau de Phœbé   

A giant ring around Saturn spanning an area of space from a distance of ~ 128 Saturn equatorial radii, RS (60,330 km) to 207 RS, that is, from about 7.7 × 106 to 12.4 × 106 km from the planet. Its vertical thickness is about 40 RS. The Phoebe ring was detected in 2009 using NASA's infrared → Spitzer Space Telescope. The Phoebe ring is made up mainly of dust particles about 10 to 20 microns in size, or about one-tenth to one-fifth the average width of a human hair. Rocks that are the size of soccer balls or larger with diameters of more than about 20 cm make up no more than about 10 percent of the ring (Verbiscer et al., 2009, Nature, 461, 1098).

Phoebe; → ring.

Phoenix
  ققنوس   
Qoqnos (#)

Fr.: Phénix   

A constellation in the southern hemisphere, at 0h 30m → right ascension, 50° south → declination. Its brightest star Alpha Phoenicis is of magnitude 2.4. Abbreviation: Phe; genitive: Phoenicis.

L. Phoenix, also phenix, from Gk. phoinix a mythical bird of great beauty which according to one account lived 500 years, burned itself to ashes on a pyre, and rose alive from the ashes to live another period.

Qoqnos, from Ar., from Gk., as above, or, for some reasons (mistake?), from Gk. kuknos, → Cygnus.

phone
  آوا   
âvâ (#)

Fr.: son   

A speech sound considered as a physical event without regard to its place in the sound system of a language.

From Gk. phone "voice, sound," phonein "to speak; cf. L. fama "talk, reputation, fame."

&ACIRC;va "voice, sound," related to âvâz "voice, sound, song" (both prefixed forms), bâng "voice, sound, clamour" (Mid.Pers. vâng), vâžé "word," variants vâj-, vâk-, vâ-, vâz-, vât-; Av. vacah- "word," vaocanghê "to decalre" (by means of speech), from vac- "to speak, say;" cf. Skt. vakti "speaks, says," vacas- "word; Gk. epos "word;" L. vox "voice;" PIE base *wek- "to speak."

phoneme
  واک   
vâk (#)

Fr.: phonème   

The smallest phonetic unit in a language that can distinguish one word from another.

From Fr. phonème, from Gk. phonema "speech sound, utterance," from phonein "to sound," → phone.

Vâk "voice," variant of vâž, vâz-, âvâz etc., → phone.

phonetics
  آواییک   
âvâyik (#)

Fr.: phonétique   

A branch of linguistics dealing with the analysis, description, and classification of speech sounds. More specifically, phonetics deals with the physical production of → phonemes regardless of language, while → phonology studies how those sounds are put together to create meaningful words in a particular language.

From phonetic, from N.L. phoneticus, from Gk. phonetikos "vocal," from phonet(os) "utterable," verbal adj. of phonein "to speak clearly, utter," from → phone + -ikos, → -ics.

&ACIRC;vâyik, from âvâ, → phone, + -ik, → -ics.

phono-
  آوا-   
âvâ- (#)

Fr.: phono-   

A combining form meaning "sound, voice," used in the formation of compound words. Also phon-, especially before a vowel.

From Gk. phon-, phono-, form → phone "voice, sound, speech"

phonology
  آواشناسی   
âvâšnâsi (#)

Fr.: phonologie   

A branch of linguistics that studies the rules in any given language that govern how → phonemes are combined to create meaningful words. Phonology and → phonetics study two different aspects of sound, but the concepts are dependent on each other in the creation of language.

phono-; → -logy.

phonon
  فونون   
fonon (#)

Fr.: phonon   

A quantum of vibrational or acoustic energy in a crystal lattice, being the analog of a photon of electromagnetic energy.

phono- + → -on.

phosphorescence
  فسفرستی   
fosforesti

Fr.: phosphorescence   

A specific type of → photoluminescence that continues for an appreciable time after the stimulating process has ceased. Phosphorescence is due to the existence of metastable → excited states of the atoms and molecules from which a change to the normal state is hindered for some reason or other. The change from the → metastable metastable state to the normal one becomes possible only as a result of some additional excitation, for example the application of heat.

phosphorus; → -escence.

phosphorus
  ۱) فسفر؛ ۲) روجا، ستاره‌ی ِ بامدادی   
1) fosfor (#); 2) rujâ, setâre-ye bâmdâdi (#)

Fr.: phosphore   

1) Nonmetallic chemical element; symbol P. → Atomic number 15; → atomic weight 30.97376; → melting point 44.1°C; → boiling point about 280°C. It was discovered by the German merchant Hennig Brand in 1669.
2) Greek name for the planet → Venus when it appears as a → morning star.

L. Phosphorus "morning star," from Gk. Phosphoros "morning star," literally "light bearing," from phos "light" + phoros "bearer," from pherein "to carry," cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, lead" (→ periphery). The chemical element is such called because of its white color.

1) Fosfor, loan from Fr.
2) → morning star.

photino
  فوتینو   
fotino (#)

Fr.: photino   

The supersymmetric partner of the → photon.

From phot, from → photon + -ino supersymmetric particle suffix.

photo-
     
šid- (#), nur- (#)

Fr.: photo-   

From Gk. combining form of phos (genitive photos).

Šid- "light, sunlight," from Mid.Pers. šêt "shining, radiant, bright;" Av. xšaēta- "shining, brilliant, splendid, excellent."
Nur-, → light.

photoabsorption
  شید-درشم   
šid-daršam

Fr.: photoabsorption   

A situation in which all of the energy of a photon is transferred to an atom, molecule, or nucleus.

photo- + → absorption.

photocathode
  شید-کاتود، نور-کاتود   
šid-kâtod, nur-kâtod

Fr.: photocathode   

Electrode capable of releasing electrons when illuminated.

photo- + → cathode.

photochemistry
  شید-شیمی، نور-شیمی   
šid-šimi, nur-šimi

Fr.: photochimie   

The study of the chemical and physical changes occurring when a molecule or atom absorbs photons of light.

photo- + → chemistry.

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