An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1043

Fr.: photonique   

The technology of generating and harnessing light and other forms of radiant energy whose quantum unit is the photon. The science includes light emission, transmission, deflection, amplification and detection by optical components and instruments, lasers and other light sources, fiber optics, electro-optical instrumentation, related hardware and electronics, and sophisticated systems.

photon + → -ics.

  شیدسپهر، رخشان‌سپهر   
šidsepehr, raxšânsepehr

Fr.: photosphère   

1) The visible surface of the Sun (temperature 5700 K), just below the → chromosphere and just above the → convective zone. The solar photosphere is a thin layer of roughly 300 km wide. Its temperature decreases uniformly with height, from about 6,600 K (pressure 0.868 → millibars) at its bottom, to about 4,400 K (pressure 125 mb), where it merges with the chromosphere. The photosphere has a "rice-grain" appearance, called → granulation, caused by rising (hot) and falling (cool) material in the → convective cells just below the photosphere. Other main features of the photosphere are → sunspots, → faculae, and → supergranulation.
2) The region of a star which gives rise to the continuum radiation emitted by the star.

photo- + → sphere.

šidsepehri (#)

Fr.: photosphérique   

Of or pertaining to a → photosphere.

photosphere; → -ic.


Fr.: photosynthèse   

The process in green plants, algae, diatoms, and certain forms of bacteria by which carbohydrates are synthesized from carbon dioxide and water using light as an energy source. Most forms of photosynthesis release oxygen as a byproduct.

photo- + → synthesis.

photovisual magnitude
  بُرز ِ شیدچشمی   
borz-e šidcašmi

Fr.: magnitude photovisuelle   

Magnitude defined for the combination of a photographic plate and a yellow filter, approximating the spectral sensitivity of the eye.

photo- + → visual; → magnitude.

photovoltaic detector
  آشکارگر ِ شید-ولتایی   
âškârgar-e šidvoltâyi

Fr.: détecteur photovoltaïque   

A detector usually constituted by a p-n junction. Upon irradiation, the electron-hole pairs which are created, are immediately separated by the strong electric field across the junction, and a current is generated, which is proportional to the number of incident photons per second.

photo- + → voltaic; → detector.


Fr.: locution, expression   

A sequence of two or more words arranged in a grammatical construction and acting as a unit in a → sentence.

From L.L. phrasis "diction," from Gk. phrasis "speech, way of speaking, enunciation," from phrazein "to express, tell," from phrazesthai "to consider."

Vatpâr, literally "part of speech," from vat-, "to speak, say;" cf. (Kurd.) wittin "to speak, say," → letter, + pâr "piece, part, portion," → partial.

fiziki (#)

Fr.: physique   

Pertaining to the physical sciences, especially physics.

physics + → -al.

physical adsorption
  برشم ِ فیزیکی   
baršam-e fiziki

Fr.: adsorption physique   

Same as → physisorption.

physical; → adsorption.

physical chemistry
  شیمی ِ فیزیکی   
šimi-ye fiziki (#)

Fr.: chimie physique   

The branch of chemistry dealing with the relations between the physical properties of substances and their chemical composition and transformations.

physical; → chemistry.

physical condition
  بوتار ِ فیزیکی   
butâr-e fiziki

Fr.: condition physique   

The state of a → physical system regarding its temperature, density, pressure, etc. at a given time.

physical; → condition.

physical constant
  پایای ِ فیزیکی   
pâyâ-ye fiziki (#)

Fr.: constante physique   

A fundamental → physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and constant in time.

physical; → constant.

physical dimension
  وامون ِ فیزیکی   
vâmun-e fiziki

Fr.: dimension physique   

Any of basic physical quantities, such as mass, length, time, electric charge, and temperature in terms of which all other kinds of quantity can be expressed.

physical; → dimension.

physical law
  قانون ِ فیزیکی   
qânun-e fiziki (#)

Fr.: loi physique   

A theoretical principle which is deduced from particular observational facts regarding the behavior of matter. Physical laws are expressed by a general statement that a particular → physical phenomenon always occurs if certain → conditions are present.

physical; → law.

physical libration
  رخگرد ِ فیزیکی   
roxgard-e fiziki

Fr.: libration physique   

Slight oscillations in the rotation of the Moon caused by the gravitational attraction of the Earth on the equatorial bulge of the Moon. → geometrical libration; → libration.

physical; → libration.

physical optics
  نوریک ِ فیزیکی   
nurik-e fiziki

Fr.: optique physique   

The branch of optics concerned with the wave properties of light, → diffraction, → polarization, and other phenomena for which the ray approximation of → geometric optics is not valid. Also called → wave optics.

physical; → optics.

physical parameter
  پارامون ِ فیزیکی   
pârâmun-e fiziki

Fr.: paramètre physique   

Any of a set of physical properties whose values determine the characteristics or behavior of a system; for example, → mass, → size, → temperature, → luminosity, etc.

physical; → parameter.

physical phenomenon
  پدیده‌ی ِ فیزیکی   
padide-ye fiziki (#)

Fr.: phénomène physique   

A natural → phenomenon that can be explained by → physical laws.

physical; → phenomenon.

physical quantity
  چندی ِ فیزیکی   
candi-ye fiziki (#)

Fr.: quantité physique   

A physical → property that can be measured and/or calculated.

physical; → quantity.

physical system
  راژمان ِ فیزیکی   
râžmân-e fiziki

Fr.: système physique   

A set of physical components chosen to study their relations.

physical; → system.

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