An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1062
potential
  توند   
tavand

Fr.: potentiel   

1) A latent ability that may or may not be developed; possibility.
2) Physics: The → work required to → move a unit positive → charge, unit magnetic pole, or an amount of → mass respectively from → infinity (i.e. a place infinitely distant from the causes of the field) to a designated point. Gravitational potential is always negative, but the electric or magnetic potentials may be positive or negative.
3) (adj.) Capable of being or becoming, as opposed to → actual.
See also:
chemical potential, → electric scalar potential, → electromagnetic potential, → equipotential surface, → excitation potential, → gravitational potential energy, → ionization potential, → kinetic potential, → magnetic vector potential, → potential barrier, → potential density, → potential difference, → potential energy, → potential energy curve, → potential field, → potential gradient, → potential well, → potentiality, → retarded potential, → scalar potential, → thermodynamic potential, → Yukawa potential.

From L.L. potentialis "potential," from L. potentia "power," potis "powerful, able, capable;" cognate with Av. paiti- "lord, husband;" Mod.Pers. -bad (sepah-bad "general, commander of an army"); Skt. páti- "master, husband;" Gk. posis "husband;" Lith. patis "husband."

Tavand, from tav- + -vand. The first component tav- is the stem of tavân "power, strength," tavânestan "to be powerful, able;" variants tâv, tâb, (dialects) tew "power;" Mid.Pers. tuwan "power, might;" O.Pers. tav- "to have power, to be strong, to be able," tauman- "power, strength," tunuvant- "powerful;" Av. tauu- (tu-) "to be able, strong," tavah- "power," təviši- "strength" (Mod.Pers. tuš "power, ability"); Skt. tavi- "to be strong, to have authority," tavas-, tavisa- "strong, energetic," tavisi- "power, strength;" Gk. taus, saos "healthy;" L. tumere "to be swollen;" PIE *teu- "to swell, be strong." The second component -vand a suffix of adjectives and agent nouns, → actual.
Note: Tavand used as both noun and adjective, such as honarmand (n.) and mard-e honarmand (adj.).

potential barrier
  ورغه‌ی ِ توند   
varqeye tavand

Fr.: barrière de potentiel   

Region in a field of force in which the potential is such that a particle, which is subject to the field, encounters opposition to its passage.

potential; → barrier.

potential density
  چگالی ِ توند   
cagâli-ye tavand

Fr.: densité potentielle   

Of a fluid parcel at pressure P, the density that it would acquire if adiabatically brought to a reference pressure.

potential; → density.

potential difference
  دگرسانی ِ توند   
degarsâni-ye tavand

Fr.: différence de potentiel   

Between two points, the work done in taking the unit test object from one point to the other. Potential is a scalar quantity.

potential; → difference.

potential energy
  کاروژ ِ توند   
kâruž-e tavand

Fr.: énergie potentielle   

Of a system, the work done in changing the system from some standard configuration to its present state. Thus, if a body of mass m is raised vertically through a height h, the work done, mgh, is the increase in potential energy.

potential; → energy.

potential energy curve
  خم ِ کاروژ ِ توند   
xam-e kâruž-e tavand

Fr.: courbe de l'energie potentielle   

A plot that displays the → potential energy of a moving body as a function of its position. It is explained by the → conservation of energy and the conversion of potential energy into → kinetic energy and vice versa.

potential; → energy; → curve.

potential field
  میدان ِ توند   
meydân-e tavand

Fr.: champ de potentiel   

A field that has a → potential. A continuous → vector fieldA in a domain D is a potential field in D if and only if its → work around every closed curve C contained in D is zero: ∫A.ds = 0. Examples include the → gravitational field and the → electrostatic field.

potential; → field.

potential gradient
  زینه‌ی ِ توند   
zine-ye tavand

Fr.: gradient de potentiel   

At a point, the rate of change of potential V, with distance x, measured in the direction in which the variation is a maximum. The intensity F of the field is proportional to the potential gradient, but is oppositely directed: F = -dV/dx.

potential; → gradient.

potential well
  چاه ِ توند   
câh-e tavand

Fr.: puit de potentiel   

Region in a → field of force in which the potential decreases abruptly, and in the surrounding region of which the potential is larger.

potential; → well.

potentiality
  توندی   
tavandi

Fr.: potentialité   

1) The state or quality of being potential. Something potential.
2) According to Aristotle, what has the possibility of having → form, in contrast to → actuality; the power to effect change.

potential + → -ity.

potentially
  توندانه   
tavandâné

Fr.: potentiellement   

With a possibility of becoming actual; possibly.

potential; → -ly.

potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA)
  سیارک ِ توندانه آپه‌ناک   
seyyârak-e tavandâné âpenâk

Fr.: astéroïde potentiellement dangereux   

An asteroid that could make a threatening close approach to the Earth. In technical terms a PHA is defined as having an → absolute magnitude of 22 or brighter and an → Earth Minimum Orbit Intersection Distance (MOID) of less than 0.05 → astronomical unit or 7.5 million km.

potentially; → hazardous; → asteroid.

potentiometer
  توندسنج   
tavandsanj

Fr.: potentiomètre   

An instrument for measuring electrical quantities by balancing an unknown potential difference against a known potential difference.

From potenti(al), → potential + -o + → -meter.

power
  توان   
tavân (#)

Fr.: puissance, pouvoir   

1) Physics: The → rate of doing → work on transferring → energy, as expressed in ergs/sec, watts, etc. Same as → mechanical power.
2) Math.: An → exponent to which a given quantity is raised. The expression xn is therefore known as "x to the n-th power."

M.E. pouer(e), poer(e), from O.Fr. povoir, noun use of the infinitive in O.Fr., "to be able," from V.L. *potere, from L. potis "powerful, able, capable;" cognate with Av. paiti- "lord, husband;" Mod.Pers. -bad (sepah-bad "general, commander of an army"); Skt. pái- "master, husband;" Gk. posis "husband;" Lith. patis "husband."

Tavân "power, strength," tavânestan "to be powerful, able;" Mid.Pers. tuwan "power, might," from O.Pers./Av. base tav- "to have power, to be strong, to be able," Av. tavah- "power," təviši- "strength," Mod.Pers. tuš, tâb "power, ability," O.Pers. tauman- "power, strength," tunuvant- "powerful," Skt. tu- "to be strong, to have authority," tavas-, tavisa- "strong, energetic," tavisi- "power, strength."

power function
  کریای ِ توانی   
karyâ-ye tavâni

Fr.: fonction de puissance   

A function of the form f(x) = xn, where n is a → real number.

power; → function.

power law
  قانون ِ توانی   
qânun-e tavâni (#)

Fr.: loi de puissance   

A mathematical relationship between two quantities expressed by a → power function.

power; → law.

power series
  سری ِ توانی   
seri-ye tavâni (#)

Fr.: série de puissance   

A series in which the terms contain regularly increasing powers of a variable. In general, a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + anxn, where a0, a1, etc. are constants.

power; → series.

power spectral density
  چگالی ِ بینابی ِ توان   
cagâli-ye binâbi-ye tavân

Fr.: densité spectrale de puissance   

Same as → spectral density.

power; → spectral; → density.

power spectrum
  بیناب ِ توانی   
binâb-e tavâni (#)

Fr.: spectre de puissance   

The plot that gives the portion of a signal's power falling within given frequency bins. The most common way of generating a power spectrum is by using a discrete Fourier transform.

power; → spectrum.

power-law distribution
  واباژش با قانون ِ توانی   
vâbâžeš bâ qânun-e tavâni

Fr.: distribution en loi de puissance   

For a → random variable X, any → distribution which has the form: P(X ≥ x) = (k/x)α, where x is a value in the range defined for X, k > 0 is a parameter termed location parameter, and α > 0 is the → slope parameter.

power; → law; → distribution.

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