An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1022
prescription
  پیش‌وشت، پیش‌ویس   
pišvešt, pišvis

Fr.: prescription, ordonnance   

1) An act of prescribing.
2) A direction, usually written, by the physician to the pharmacist for the preparation and use of a medicine or remedy. The medicine prescribed (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → prescribe; → -tion.

prescriptive
  پیش‌وشتی، پیش‌ویسنده   
pišvešti, pišvisandé

Fr.: normatif   

1) That prescribes; giving directions or injunctions.
2) Depending on or arising from effective legal prescription, as a right or title established by a long unchallenged tenure (Dictionary.com).

prescribe; → -ive.

presence
  پیشاستی   
pišâsti

Fr.: présence   

The state or fact of being present.

Noun from → present.

present
  ۱) پیشاست، باشنده؛ ۲، ۳) پیشاست، کنون، کنونی   
1) pišâst, bâšandé; 2, 3) pišâst, konun, konuni

Fr.: présent   

1) Being, existing, or occurring at this time or now.
2) At this time; at hand; immediate.
3) Grammar: Noting an action or state occurring at the moment of speaking.

M.E., from O.Fr. present, from L. præsentem (nominative præsens) "present, immediate," from pr.p. of præesse "to be before, to be at hand," from præ- "before," → pre-, + esse "to be;" cf. Pers. ast "is," hastan, astan "to be;" O.P. ah- "to be," astiy "is;" Av. ah- "to be," astī "is;" Skt. as- "to be," ásti "is;" Gk. esti "is;" PIE base es- "to be."

Pišâst, on the model of L. præesse, as above, from piš, → pre-, + epenthetic -â- + ast "is," variants hast, hi, has (Qâyen), isâ (Rašt), a (Aftar), heye (Kurd.); Av./O.Pers. ah- "to be," Proto-Ir. *Hah- "to be," → existence.
Bâšandé agent noun from budan "to be;" → condition.
Konuni "presently," from konun, aknun "now, present," from *hak-nun, from *hak-, cf. Av. hakat- "at once, immediately" + nū- "now" (Mid/Mod.Pers. nun "now, at present"); Av. nūrəm "now;" O.Pers. nūram "now;" Skt. nú- "now, just, but," nūnám "now, at present, indeed;" Gk. nun "now;" L. nu- "now" (in nu-dis "the day after tomorrow"); Goth. nu "now;" O.E. nu; E. now; PIE base *nu- "now."

present participle
  پارگرته‌ی ِ کنون   
pârgerte-ye konun

Fr.: participe présent   

A → participle that indicates an ongoing action or state in the present.

present; → participle.

present-day mass function (PDMF)
  کریای ِ جرم ِ کنونی   
karyâ-ye jerm-e konuni

Fr.: fonction de masse actuelle   

The present number of stars on the → main sequence per unit logarithmic mass interval per square parsec. The PDMF is the basis for deriving the → initial mass function (IMF). This mass function is not corrected for stellar evolution nor losses through stellar deaths.

present; → day; → mass; → function.

preside
  فرنشتیدن   
farneštidan

Fr.: présider   

To occupy the place of authority or control, as in an assembly or meeting; act as president or chairperson (Dictionary.com).

pre-; → reside.

president
  فرنشتگار   
farneštgâr

Fr.: président   

1) The highest executive officer of a modern republic, as the Chief Executive of the United States (often initial capital letter).
2) An officer appointed or elected to preside over an organized body of persons (Dictionary.com).

preside; → -ent.

Farneštgâr, from farnešt, present stem of farneštidan, → preside, + agent noun suffix -gâr, → -or, on the model of âmuzgâr "teacher."

presolar
  پیش-خورشیدی   
piš-xoršidi

Fr.: pré-solaire   

Of or relating to an epoch earlier than the formation of the Sun.

pre-; → solar.

presolar grain
  دانه‌ی ِ پیش-خورشیدی   
dâne-ye piš-xoršidi

Fr.: grain pré-solaire   

A → refractory → nanoparticle embedded in → meteorites and → interplanetary dust particles whose → isotopic ratios suggest formation earlier than the Solar System.

presolar; → grain.

Press-Schechter formalism
  دیسه‌گرایی ِ پرس-ششتر   
disegerâyi-ye Press-Schechter

Fr.: formalisme de Press-Schechter   

A mathematical analysis, based on → self-similarity, used to predict the → mass function of spherically collapsing → dark matter halos. The formalism assumes that the fraction of mass in halos more massive than M is related to the fraction of the volume in which the smoothed initial density field is above some threshold δcρ, where ρ is the average density of the Universe, with the volume encompassing a mass larger than M. A variety of smoothing → window functions and thresholds have been argued, but the most common is a top-hat window in real space and δc≅ 1.69. The Press-Schechter formalism provides a relatively good fit to the results of numerical simulations in cold dark matter theories.

First described by William H. Press and Paul Schechter's paper (1974, ApJ 187, 425); → formalism.

pressure
  فشار   
fešâr (#)

Fr.: pression   

The force per unit area.

M.E., from O.Fr. pressure, from L. pressura "action of pressing," from pressus, p.p. of premere "to press, compress."

Fešâr "squeezing, constriction, compression," verb fešordan, fešârdan "to press, squeeze;" phonetic variants Lori xošâr, Aftari xešâr, Qazvini, Qomi xošâl; cf. Khotanese ssarr- "to exhilarate;" loaned in Arm. ôšarak, in Ar. afšaraj "juice."

pressure broadening
  پهنش ِفشاری   
pahneš-e fešâri

Fr.: élargissement par pression   

A broadening of spectral lines caused mainly by the stellar atmospheric density and the surface gravity of the star. The line strength of a spectral line depends on the number of atoms in the star's atmosphere capable of absorbing the wavelength in question. For a given temperature, the more atoms there are, the stronger and broader the spectral line appears. Denser stars with higher surface gravity will exhibit greater pressure broadening of spectral lines.

pressure; → broadening.

pressure gradient
  زینه‌ی ِ فشار   
zine-ye fešâr

Fr.: gradient de pression   

The pressure difference between two adjacent regions of a fluid that results in a force being exerted from the high pressure region toward the low pressure region.

pressure; → gradient.

pressure gradient force
  نیروی ِ زینه‌ی ِ فشار   
niru-ye zine-ye fešâr

Fr.: force du gradient de pression   

A force resulting from → pressure gradient that is directed from high to low pressure.

pressure; → gradient; → force.

pressure ionization
  یونش ِ فشاری   
yoneš-e fešâri

Fr.: ionisation par pression   

A physical state of dense matter in which the electrostatic field of one atom should influence a neighboring atom and hence disturb atomic levels. In extreme case, such as white dwarfs, electron clouds practically rub and electrons are ionized off the parent atoms.

pressure; → ionization.

pressure scale height
  بلندی ِ مرپل ِ فشار   
bolandi-ye marpel-e fešâr

Fr.: hauteur d'échelle de pression   

A basic ingredient of the → mixing length theory that scales with the → mixing length. It is defined by the relation: HP = -dr/dln P = -Pdr/dP , where r is the height and P the pressure. See also → scale height.

pressure; → scale; → height.

previous
  پیشین   
pišin (#)

Fr.: précédent   

Occurring before something else in time or order.

From L. praevius "leading the way," from prae-, → pre- + via "way."

Pišin, from piš "before," → pre-.

previously
  پیشانه   
pišâné

Fr.: précédemment, auparavant   

Coming or occurring before something else; prior.

previous; → -ly.

Prevost's law of exchanges
  قانون ِ گهولش ِ په‌ره‌وُ   
qânun-e gahuleš-e Prévost

Fr.: loi des échanges de Prévost   

A statement concerned with thermodynamic heat exchange, according to which bodies in → thermal equilibrium are simultaneously absorbing and emitting radiant energy. A body radiates in the same way whether other bodies are present or not. Also called Prevost's theory of exchanges.

Named after Pierre Prévost (1751-1839), a Swiss philosopher and physicist, who, in 1791, put forward the statement; → law; → exchange.

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