An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 717

Fr.: réaliste   

1) Interested in, concerned with, or based on what is real or practical.
2) Philo.: Of or pertaining to realists or → realism.

From → real + -istic, from L. -isticus, Gk. -istikos, from -ikos, → -ic.


Fr.: réalité   

1) The state or quality of being real. A real thing or fact.
2) Philo.: The totality of what is, as opposed to what merely seems to be.

real + → -ity.


Fr.: vraiment   

In reality; actually; indeed.

real; → -ly.

  ۱؛ ۲؛ ۳) راین؛ ۳) خرد؛ ۴) راینیدن   
1; 2; 3) râyan; 3) xerad; 4) râyanidan

Fr.: raison   

1) A basis or cause, as for some belief, action, fact, event, etc.
2) A statement presented in justification or explanation of a belief or action.
3) The mental powers concerned with forming conclusions, judgments, or → inferences.
Philo.: The intellectual ability to apprehend the truth cognitively, either immediately in intuition, or by means of a process of inference. See also → wisdom.
4) (v.) To think or argue in a logical manner; to form conclusions, judgments, or inferences from facts or premises.

M.E. resoun, reisun (n.), from O.Fr. reisun, reson, raison, from L. rationem (nom. ratio) "reckoning, understanding, motive, cause," from ratus, p.p. of reor, reri "to reckon, think;" cognate with Pers. râ, rây "reason," as below; O.C.S. raditi "to take thought, attend to," O.Ir. im-radim "to deliberate, consider."

Râyan, from rây + -an. The first component rây, râ "because of, by reason of," in barây-e "because of," cerâ "for what reason, why?," irâ "for this reason, therefore," zirâ "because, on account of;" also rây "opinion, consult;" râymand "reasonable, wise;" râyzan "a person whom one consults; wise;" Mid.Pers. râd, rây "because of, for the sake of, on behalf of;" O.Pers. "reason, cause," in rādiy "for this reason;" Av. rādah- "generosity, care, generous," rāsta- "to do right, to fit;" cf. Skt. rādh- "to succeed, be successful;" Gk. arithmos "number, amount;" L. ratio, as above; PIE base *rē-, *rə-. The second component -an a suffix as in rowzan, rowšan, suzan, rasan, zaqan, hâvan, etc.


Fr.: raisonable   

Being in accordance with reason.

reason; → -able.


Fr.: raisonnement   

A process of thinking involving → inference, or of solving problems by employing general principles.

Verbal noun of → reason.

Reaumur scale
  مرپل ِ ریءومور   
marpel-e Réaumur

Fr.: échelle Réaumur   

A temperature scale in which the → freezing point and the → boiling point of → water are set to 0 and 80 degrees respectively. See also → Celsius scale, → Fahrenheit scale, → Kelvin scale, → Rankine scale.

Named after René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (1683-1757), who first proposed it in 1730; → scale.

  ۱) واجهیدن؛ ۲) واجست   
1) vâjahidan; 2) vâjast

Fr.: 1) rebondir; 2) rebond   

1) To bound or spring back from force of impact.
2) The act of rebounding; recoil.

M.E., from O.Fr. rebondir "leap back, resound; push back," from → re- "back" + bondir "to leap, bound."

Vâjahidan, from vâ-, → re-, + jahidan "to leap, → jump."

receding galaxy
  کهکشان ِ دورشونده   
kahkašân-e dur šavandé

Fr.: galaxie qui s'éloigne   

A galaxy whose distance increases from other galaxies due to the global expansion of the Universe.

Receding, verbal adj. of recede, M.E., from M.Fr. receder, from L. recedere "to go back, withdraw," from → re- "back" + cedere "to go;" → galaxy.

Kahkašân, → galaxy; dur šavandé "receding," from dur, → far, + šavandé agent noun of šodan "to go, to pass; to become, to be, to be doing;" Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. š(ii)auu-, šiyav- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro."

girandé (#)

Fr.: récepteur   

An electronic device that amplifies, detects, and gives a measure of the intensity of radio signals.

M.E. receven, from O.Fr. recoivre, from L. recipere from → re- + -cipere, combining form of capere "to take, hold, seize," PIE base *kap- "to grasp" (cf. Skt. kapati "two handfuls," Gk. kaptein "to swallow," O.Ir. cacht "servant-girl," lit. "captive," Goth. haban "have, hold," O.E. habban "to have, hold," probably Mod.Pers. qâp-, qâpidan, kapidan "to seize, rob," Av. haf-, hap- "to keep, observe").

Girandé, agent noun of gereftan "to take, seize, hold;" Mid.Pers. griftan, gir- "to take, hold, restrain;" O.Pers./Av. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha- "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE *ghrebh- "to seize."

receiver noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ گیرنده   
nufe-ye girandé

Fr.: bruit de récepteur   

The unwanted signal affecting a receiver.

receiver; → noise.


Fr.: récent   

1) Of, belonging to, or occurring at a time immediately before the present.
2) Geology: Of, belonging to, or denoting the Holocene Epoch.

From L. recentem (nominative recens) "fresh, new, young," from → re- + PIE root *ken- "fresh, new, young;" cf. Av. kainika-, kanya- "young girl;" Mod.Pers. kaniz(ak) "maid, virigin, girl; a female slave;" Mid.Pers. kanig, kanizag "girl, maid;" Gk. kainos "new;" Skt. kanina- "young;" Old Irish cetu- "first;" O.C.S. koni "beginning."

Tarné, from Tabari tarné "fresh, new, young, recent" (tarné mâr "fresh mother," i.e. "animal that has just given birth," tarné guk "recently born calf"), related to Pers. tar "fresh, young; wet," tarké "sprout;" Mid.Pers. tarr "fresh, moist;" Proto-Ir. *tarna-; cf. Av. tauruna- "young, fresh; young boy, lad;" Skt. táruna- "young, fresh;" Gk. teren "delicate, weak."


Fr.: récemment   

In the recent past.

recent + -ly a suffix forming adverbs from adjectives.


Fr.: 1) caractère récent; 2) époque récente   

1) The property of having happened or appeared not long ago.
2) A time immediately before the present.

recent; → -ness.

  دورشد، واروش   
duršod, vâraveš

Fr.: éloignement, récession   

1) The act of receding, going back, or withdrawing.
2) Economics: A period of an economic contraction, sometimes limited in scope or duration (

From Fr. récession "a going backward, a withdrawing," from L. recessionem "a going back," noun of action from p.p. stem of recedere "to go back, fall back; withdraw, retire," from → re- "back" + cedere "to go," → process.

Duršod, from dur, → remote, + šod "going," past stem of šodan "to go, to become," → change. Vâraveš, from vâ-, → re-, + raveš verbal noun of raftan "to go," → method.

recession velocity
  تندای ِ دورشدن   
tondâ-ye dur šodan

Fr.: vitesse d'éloignement   

The velocity with which an object moves away from another object or a reference point.

recession; → velocity.

reciprocity theorem
  فربین ِ دوسویگی   
farbin-e dosuyegi

Fr.: théorème de réciprocité   

1) General: Any theorem that expresses various reciprocal relations for the behavior of some physical systems, in which input and output can be interchanged without altering the response of the system to a given excitation.
2) In classical electromagnetism, the theorem stating that the current in a detector divided by the voltage at the source remains constant when source and detector are interchanged, as long as the frequency and all the impedances are left unchanged.

Reciprocity, from L. reciproc(us) "returning the same way, alternating" + → -ity; → theorem.

Farbin, → theorem; dosuyegi, quality noun of dosuyé nuanced term of dosu "two-sided," from do, → two, + su "direction, side," from Mid.Pers. sôk "direction, side."

bâzšenâxt (#)

Fr.: rconnaissance   

An act of recognizing or the state of being recognized.

Verbal noun of → recognize.

bâzšenâxtan (#)

Fr.: rconnaître   

1) To identify as something or someone previously seen, known, etc.
2) To identify from knowledge of appearance or characteristics (

re-; → cognition; → -ize.

  ۱) پسزدن؛ ۲) پسزنی   
1) paszadan; 2) paszani

Fr.: 1) reculer; 2) recul   

1) To draw back; to rebound or fly back.
2) An act of recoiling. → Compton recoil.

M.E. recoilen, reculen, from O.Fr. reculer "to go back, recede, retreat," from V.L. *reculare, from L. → re- "back" + culus "backside."

Paszadan, from pas-, → back-, + zadan "to strike, beat, dash against," from Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan, O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"), Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"), cf. Gk. theinein "to strike," L. fendere "to strike, push," Gmc *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill."

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