Fr.: masse réduite
The "effective" → inertial mass appearing in the → two-body problem of → Newtonian mechanics. The reduced mass is a quantity which allows the two-body problem to be solved as if it were a one-body problem. For the masses m1 and m2, it is given by the ratio μ = m1m2 / (m1 + m2). The value of μ is generally smaller than m1 and m2. The larger the difference between the two masses, the closer μ will be to the smaller mass. If the particles are of equal mass, μ is half the mass of either.
reduced Planck's constant
pâyâ-ye Planck-e bâzhâzidé
Fr.: constante de Planck réduite
The Planck's constant divided by 2π and denoted ħ, pronounced h-bar. Also called → Dirac's constant.
javv-e bâzhâzandé, havâsepehr-e ~
Fr.: atmosphère réductrice
1) An atmospheric condition in which oxidation is prevented by removal
of oxygen and other oxidating gasses or vapours. Usually nitrogen or
hydrogen gas is used in order to produce specific effects, e.g. on
ceramic wares being fired.
Same as → reducing agent.
Agent noun from → reduce.
reductio ad absurdum
bâzhâzeš bé yâvé
Fr.: raisonnement par l'absurde
Logic, Math.: A method of → reasoning in which one assumes some statement to be → true and from that → assumption proceeds to deduce a logical → absurdity and hence to a conclusion that the original assumption must have been → false.
1) In → data processing, the transformation of data from
a "raw" form to some usable form.
Verbal noun of → reduce.
The fact of repeating or duplicity.
From L. redundantia "an overflowing, excess," from redundare "to flow back, overflow, be excessive," from → re- "again" + undare "rise in waves," from unda "a wave."
Afzun-âyi "redundancy, superabounding," from afzun "more, greater; more ample," from afzudan "to add, increase" (Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Sk. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens") + âyi verbal noun of ây- present stem of âmadan "to come, arrive, become" (Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" L. ire "to go;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Rus. idti "to go").
Fr.: effet de Rees-Sciama
The → Sachs-Wolfe effect in which the calculations are extended to nonlinear mass concentrations. In the non-linear regime of large-scale → structure formation the → gravitational potential changes with time, and photons climb out of a → potential well slightly different from the one that they fell into. Therefore, nonlinear density fluctuations produce extra evolution of the potentials against the background expansion. On large scales, the nonlinear contribution to the full ISW effect is expected to be dominated by the linear ISW effect in a Universe with → cosmological constant (Seljak, 1996, ApJ 460, 549).
Martin J. Rees (1942-) & Dennis W. Sciama (1926-1999), 1968, Nature 217, 511; → effect.
1) To direct for information or anything required.
M.E. referren, from L. referre "to bring back," from → re- "back" + ferre "carry, bear," cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, bear," as below.
Bâzbordan, literally "to bring back," from bâz "back," → re- + bordan "to carry, bear" (Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry").
1) An act or instance of referring.
Verbal noun of → refer.
Fr.: ellipsoïde de référence
A mathematically defined surface that approximates the Earth's shape, which is basically a sphere "flattened" at its poles. The length of one of the axes at the Equator is chosen so that the ellipsoid coincides at this latitude with the mean sea level. It is the first-order definition of the non-spherical shape of the Earth as an ellipsoid of revolution. To first order, it accounts for over 90% of the → geoid.
Fr.: système de référence
A set of axes to which positions and motions in a system can be referred. Same as → frame of reference.
Fr.: source de référence
An astronomical source in a field used as a reference for the detection of another object, astrometry, etc.
1) pâludan; 2) nâzokidan
1) To bring to a fine or a pure state; free from impurities.
1) pâlâyeš; 2) nâzokeš
1) Fineness or elegance of feeling, taste, manners, language, etc.
Verbal noun of → refine.
Any of a series of features occurring in the → light curve of → dwarf novae and → Soft X-ray Transient (SXT)s during → outburst decay. Reflares appear when the surface density Σ behind the cooling front is high enough to reach Σmax. At the radius at which this happens, the disk becomes thermally unstable and a new heating front develops. This front propagates outward like an inside-out outburst, reheating the disk until Σ(R) ≤ Σmin, when cooling can resume. The density in the cold region is depleted as matter is accreted during this process, and the following reflare occurs at smaller radii and have lower amplitudes (G. Dubus et al., 2001, A&A 373, 251).
To throw or bend back from a surface, specially light, sound, or heat.
M.E. reflecten, from L. reflectere "to bend back," from → re- "back" + flectere "to bend."
Bâztâbidan, from bâz-, → re- + tâbidan, variants tâftan "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Mid.Pers. tâftan "to heat, burn, shine;" taftan "to become hot;" Parthian t'b "to shine;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "; to heat, be/become hot; to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "to be warm."
1) Same as → reflection factor.
From → reflect + -ance
Bâztâbâyi, verbal noun from adj./agent noun bâztâbâ "reflecting."
partow-e bâztâbidé (#)
Fr.: rayon réfléchi
A → light ray that is reflected from a surface.