An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1329
shale
  اردوال   
ardavâl (#)

Fr.: schiste, schiste argileux   

A fissile rock composed mostly of layers of clay-like, fine-grained → sediments. Shale is the most frequently occurring → sedimentary rock.

Probably from obsolete or dialect shale "scale, shell," from M.E., from O.E. scealu, → rock.

Ardavâl "shale," in the dialectal Mod.Pers. of Golpâyegân, Arâk, Xonsâr, etc.

shallow
  نژل   
nažal

Fr.: peu profond   

Of little depth; not deep.

M.E. schalowe, akin to O.E. sceald "shallow."

Nažal, from negation prefix na-, → non-, + žal "deep," variant of jal, jol, jul, → deep.

shallow angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ نژل   
zâviye-ye nažal

Fr.: angle faible   

Low angle, → grazing incidence.

shallow; → angle.

shank
  ساق، پاچه   
sâq (#), pâcé (#)

Fr.: jambe, jarret   

The part of the → leg between the → knee and the → ankle in humans.

O.E. sceanca "leg, shank, shinbone;" cf. Ger. schenkel "shank, leg," Dan., Swed. skank "leg;" maybe somehow related to Pers. leng, → leg.

Sâq "the leg from the ankle to the knee; the stem of a tree," maybe a variant of šâx "a branch, bough; a horn," or loan from Ar.

Shannon entropy
  درگاشت ِ شانون   
dargâšt-e Shannon

Fr.: entropie de Shannon   

information entropy.

Claude Elwood Shannon (1916-2001), an American mathematician and pioneer of → information theory; → entropy.

Shannon's sampling theorem
  فربین ِ نمونان‌گیری ِ شانون   
farbin-e nemunân-giri-ye Shannon

Fr.: théorème d'échantillonnage de Shannon   

Same as → sampling theorem.

Shannon entropy; → sampling; → theorem.

Shapiro time delay
  درنگ ِ شپیرو   
derang-e Shapiro

Fr.: effet Shapiro   

A → general relativity effect whereby an → electromagnetic signal passing near a massive object takes, due to the curved → space-time, a slightly longer time to travel to a target than it would if the mass of the object were not present. The Shapiro time delay is one of the four classic solar system tests of general relativity. Radar reflections from → Mercury and → Mars are consistent with general relativity to an accuracy of about 5%. The Shapiro time delay is a significant contributor in → gravitational lens systems.

Irwin I. Shapiro, an American astrophysicist; → time; → delay.

Shapley concentration
  دبزش ِ شپلی   
dabzeš-e Shapley

Fr.: concentration de Shapley   

Same as the → Shapley supercluster.

Shapley's wing; → concentration

Shapley supercluster
  ابرخوشه‌ی ِ شپلی   
abarxuše-ye Shapley

Fr.: superamas de Shapley   

The richest → supercluster of galaxies in the nearby → Universe at a → redshift going from z ~0.03 to z ~0.05 (680 million → light-years), and extending over several square degrees on the plane of the sky. It lies behind the → Centaurus supercluster. Also called the Shapley concentration, it is made up of 25 → galaxy clusters with a total mass of about 1016solar masses. At the core of the Shapley supercluster is a remarkable complex formed by several rich clusters of galaxies from the → Abell catalog; the central and most massive of them is A3558.

Shapley's wing; → supercluster

Shapley's wing
  بال ِ شپلی   
Bâl-e Shapley

Fr.: Bras de Shapley   

A large cloud of faint stars extending eastward from the → Small Magellanic Cloud to the → Large Magellanic Cloud. The wing is in fact the tail of a much larger → neutral hydrogen structure linking the SMC to the LMC. Models and observations suggest that the structure known as the → Magellanic Stream results from the Clouds' interaction with each other and the Milky Way. Several works support the finding that the SMC wing is pointing toward the LMC, and is therefore closer to us than the SMC bar.

Named after the American astronomer Harlow Shapley (1885-1972), who discovered this structure (1940, Harvard Bull., 914, 8); → wing.

Shapley-Ames Catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ شیپلی-ایمز   
kâtâlog-e Shapely-Ames

Fr.: catalogue de Shapely-Ames   

A catalog of 1,249 galaxies, brighter than the 13th magnitude, published in 1932. A revised version was published by A.R. Sandage and G. A. Tammann in 1981.

By the American astronomer Harlow Shapley (1885-1972) and the American woman astronomer Adelaide Ames (1900-1932), who died in a drowning accident; → catalog.

Sharafeddin's staff
  چوبدست ِ شرف‌الدین   
cubdast-e sharafeddin

Fr.: bâton de Sharafeddin   

linear astrolabe.

Named after the Iranian mathematician and astronomer Sharafeddin Tusi (c1135-1213), who invented the instrument. Not to be confused with Nasireddin Tusi (1201-1274), → Nasireddin couple; → staff.

share
  ۱) بش؛ ۲) بشیدن   
1) baš; 2) bašidan

Fr.: 1) part; 2) partager   

1a) The full or proper portion or part allotted or belonging to or contributed or owed by an individual or group.
1b) One of the equal fractional parts into which the capital stock of a joint-stock company or a corporation is divided.
2a) To divide and distribute in shares; apportion.
2b) To use, participate in, enjoy, receive, etc., jointly (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.E. scearu "a cutting, shearing; a part or division," related to sceran "to cut;" O.H.G. scara "troop, share of forced labor," Ger. Schar "troop, band," properly "a part of an army," O.N. skör "rim;" from PIE root *(s)ker- "to cut."

Bâš, from Kurd. (Sorani) baš "share, part;" variant of baxš "share, portion;" baxšidan "to divide," → division; bâž "tribute, toll, impost," → distribute.

sharp
  ۱) تیز؛ ۲) تیگ   
1) tiz; 2) tig

Fr.: 1) tranchant, pointu; 2) net   

1) Having a thin cutting edge or a fine point.
2) Of an image, clearly defined; distinct. → sharp image.

M.E.; O.E. scearp "cutting, keen, sharp;" cf. Du. scherp, Ger. scharf "sharp;" PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut."

Tiz "sharp," variants tež, tej, tij, tiq, tik, tig; Mid.Pers. tigr, têz, têž "sharp;" O.Pers. tigra- "pointed," tigra.xauda- "pointed helmet (epithet of Scythians);" Av. tiγra- "pointed," tiγray- "arrow," tiži.arštay- "with the pointed spear;" cf. Skt. tikta- "sharp, pungent, bitter," tejas- "sharpness, edge, point or top of a flame;" PIE base *st(e)ig- "to stick; pointed." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. stizein "to prick, puncture," stigma "mark made by a pointed instrument;" L. in-stigare "to goad;" O.H.G. stehhan; Ger. stechen "to stab, prick;" Du. stecken; O.E. sticca "rod, twig, spoon;" E. stick.

sharp image
  تصویر ِ تیگ   
tasvir-e tig

Fr.: image nette   

An image with clear and distinct details. Opposite of → blurred image.

sharp; → image.

sharpen
  ۱) تیز کردن؛ ۲) تیگیدن   
1) tiz kardan; 2) tigidan

Fr.: 1) aiguiser; 2) rendre plus net   

1) To make sharp or sharper.
2) To increase the spatial resolution or the clearness of an image; same as → deblur; → deconvolve.

Verbal form of → sharp.

Tigidan "to sharpen," verbal form of tigsharp.

Sharpless catalogue
  کاتالوگ ِ شارپلس   
kâtâlog-e Sharpless

Fr.: catalogue de Sharpless   

A list of 313 individual → H II regions in the → northern → Milky Way (north of declination -27°). It includes several → planetary nebulae, → supernova remnants, and → reflection nebulae. The first edition (Sh-1) was published in 1953 with 142 objects and second and final version (Sh-2) was published in 1959. The catalog categorizes the H II regions in terms of several parameters, such as diameter, form (circular, elliptical, irregular), structure (amorphous/filamentary), brightness, and number of associated stars, which are further discussed in terms of their spectral classes.

Stewart Sharpless (1959) A Catalogue of H II Regions, ApJ Suppl. 4, 257; → catalog.

Shaula (Lambda Scorpii)
  شوله   
Shulé (#)

Fr.: Shaula, λ Scorpii   

The second brightest star in the constellation → Scorpius, lying at a distance of 570 → light-years. With → Lesath (Upsilon Scorpii) both stars make up the Scorpion's stinger. Shaula is a → multiple star with three visible → components. The first one, Lambda Scorpii A, is classified as a B2 IV → subgiant. The 15th magnitude Lambda Scorpii B has a separation of 42 arcseconds from component A, while the 12th magnitude Lambda Scorpii C is 95 arcseconds from A. It is not known whether or not these components are physically associated with component A. The component A is actually a → triple system consisting of two → B-type stars and a → pre-main sequence star.

Shaula, from Ar. ash-shaulah (الشولاء) the "raised tail" of Scorpion.

SHB star
  ستاره‌ی ِ SHB   
setâre-ye SHB

Fr.: étoile SHB   

Same as → supra-horizontal branch star.

supra-; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

shear
  ۱) کرن؛ ۲) کرنیدن   
1) karn; 2) karnidan

Fr.: 1) cisaillement; 2) cisailler   

1) (n.) General: A scissors of large size.
Physics: A → stress applied to a body in the plane of its faces or perpendicular to its axis. As a consequence, parallel planes in the body remain parallel, but are displaced in a direction parallel to themselves. See also → strain.
2) (v.) General: To cut hair, fleece, or foliage from the surface of something using a sharp tool.
Physics: To cause something to deform or break by applying forces acting parallel to the plane.

M.E. sheren, O.E. sceran, scieran; cf. O.H.G. scrinden "to split;", Du. scheren, Ger. scheren "to shear;" from PIE *(s)ker- "to cut, to scrape, to hack;" cf. Pers. kârd "knife;" Av. kart- "to cut;" Skt. krntáti "cuts;" Gk. keirein "to cut, shear;" Lith. skiriu "to separate."

1) Karn, from Laki caré, Farâhâni carra, Tabari carci "a scissors for cutting sheep wool," cognate with Pers. kârd "knife; " Mid.Pers. kârt "knife," karēnītan, karītan "to cut;" Av. karət- "to cut;" cf. Skt. kart- "to cut," krpāna- "sword, knife;" Gk. karpos "fruit;" L. carpere "to cut, divide, pluck;" PIE base *(s)ker- "to cut."
Karnidan infinitive from karn.

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