An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sco sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha She sho sid sig SIM sim Sin ske sle smo soc sol sol sol Sol Som sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suf sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys > >>

Number of Results: 1307
Shedir (α Cassiopeiae)
Sadr (#)

Fr.: Shedir   

The brightest star in the constellation → Cassiopeia. It is a supergiant K0 III star with a visual magnitude of 2.23 at a distance of 230 light-years. It has a large luminosity, 855 times that of our Sun, and a notable size, 48 times that of the Sun. Its effective temperature is 4530 K. Name variants: Schedar, Shedar, and Schedir. Also known as HR 168 and HD 3712.

From Ar. as-sadr (الصدر) "chest, breast," contraction of as-sadr-al-Zat-al-kursi (الصدر‌الذات‌الکرسی) "the chest of the throne's owner" or "the chest of the seated one" referring to the Ar. rendering of the character in Gk. mythology.

gusfand (#)

Fr.: mouton   

A domesticated ruminant mammal with a thick woolly coat and (typically only in the male) curving horns. It is kept in flocks for its wool or meat (

M.E., from O.E. sceap; related to O.Frisian skep, O.Saxon scap, O.H.G. scaf, Ger. Schaf.

Gusfand, guspand, from Mid.Pers. gôspand "cattle in general," especially "sheep, goats," as distinguished from horses and cows, Av. gaospənta- "sanctified, consecrated cow," from gao-, → cow, + spənta- "sanctfied, holy," → holiday.

pusté (#)

Fr.: coquille; couche   

1) General: A relatively thin external form covering a hollow space.
2) Physics: → electron shell.
3) → seashell.
4) Astro.: → shell burning; → shell galaxy; → shell star; → shellular rotation; → SNR shell.

M.E.; O.E. sciell, scill "seashell, eggshell," related to O.E. scealu "shell, husk;" cf. W.Fris. skyl "peel, rind," M.L.G. schelle "rind, egg shell," Goth. skalja "tile;" PIE base *(s)kel- "to cut, cleave."

Pusté "shell," from pust "skin;" Mid.Pers. pôst "skin;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Av. pastô-, in pastô.fraθanhəm "of the breadth of the skin;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth."

shell burning
  سوزش ِ پوسته   
suzeš-e pusté

Fr.: combustion en couche   

The nuclear reactions in a shell around a star's core that continue after the fuel in the core itself has been exhausted. As the fuel is progressively exhausted, the shell moves outward until it enters regions too cool for the reactions to continue. For example, after the exhaustion of hydrogen in the core, helium burning might take place in the core with a shell of hydrogen burning surrounding it. Stars may have more than one region of shell burning during their stellar evolution, each shell with its own nuclear reactions. → hydrogen shell burning; → helium shell burning.

shell; → burning.

shell galaxy
  کهکشان ِ پوسته‌دار   
kahkešân-e pustedâr

Fr.: galaxie en coquille   

An elliptical galaxy that is surrounded by thin shells of stars which are thought to have been ejected during a galaxy merger. Shell galaxies are different from ring galaxies in that the shells are much further away from the galaxy's centre and much fainter than the rings. Spectroscopy of the stars in the shell show that they are old whereas the stars in a ring galaxy are young.

shell; → galaxy.

shell star
  ستاره‌ی ِ پوسته‌دار   
setâre-ye pustedâr

Fr.: étoile à enveloppe   

A main-sequence star, usually of spectral class B to F, whose spectrum shows bright emission lines superimposed on the normal absorption lines. The emission spectrum is explained by the presence of a circumstellar shell of gas surrounding the star at the equator. Shell stars are fast rotators.

shell; → star.

shellular rotation
  چرخش ِ پوسته‌ای   
carxeš-e puste-yi

Fr.: rotation coquillaire   

A rotation mode in which internal rotation of a star depends essentially on depth and little on latitude: Ω(r,θ) = Ω(r), where r is the mean distance to the stellar center of the considered level surface (or → isobar). This particular mode was introduced by J.-P. Zahn (1992, A&A 265, 115) to simplify the treatment of rotational → mixing, but also on more physical grounds. Indeed differential rotation tends to be smoothed out in latitude through → shear turbulence. See also → von Zeipel theorem; → meridional circulation .

Shellular, the structure of this term is not clear; it may be a combination of → shell (referring to star's assumed division in differentially rotating concentric shells) + (circ)ular, → circular. The first bibliographic occurrence of shellular is seemingly in Ghosal & Spiegel (1991, On the Thermonuclear Convection: I. Shellular Instability, Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 61, 161). However, surprisingly the term appears only in the title, and nowhere in the body of the article; → rotation.

Carxeš, → rotation; puste-yi, adj. of pusté, → shell.

  چوپان، شبان   
cupân (#), šabân (#)

Fr.: berger   

A person who takes care of sheep; a pastor. → shepherd moon.

From M.E. shepherde; O.E. sceaphierde, from sceap "sheep" + hierde "herder," from heord "a herd;" cf. M.L.G., M.Du. schaphirde, M.H.G. schafhirte, Ger. dial. schafhirt.

Cupân "shepherd," variants šobân, šabân; Mid.Pers. šubân, from šu + -bân. The first component from Av. pasu-, fšu- "sheep;" Mid.Pers. pâh, pasvīk "cattle;" Laki and Tâti pas "sheep;" Kurd. pez/paz; Ossetain (Digor.) fus, (Iron.) fys; Zazaki pes "small cattle;" Lâri pah; Qasrâni cu; Sogd. psw "cattle, sheep;" cf. Skt. paśu- "cattle;" L. pecu "flock, farm animals, cattle," pecunia "money, property;" Goth. faihu "money, fortune;" O.E. feoh "cattle, money;" Ger. Vieh "cattle;" Lith. pekus "cattle;" PIE base *peku- "cattle." The second component -pân/-bân a suffix denoting "keeper, guard," sometimes forming agent nouns or indicating relation, → host.

shepherd moon
  مانگ ِ چوپان   
mâng-e cupân

Fr.: satellites bergers   

A → natural satellite in orbit near the edge of a → planetary ring, whose → gravitational force on the ring particles strongly controls the distribution of material within the ring, creating ringlets and density waves within the ring and sharp edges at ring boundaries. Examples include → Saturn's → Prometheus and → Pandora, which shepherd the narrow outer → F ring and the → Uranus satellites → Cordelia and → Ophelia and the epsilon ring. The faster-moving inside satellite accelerates the inner ring particles as it passes them, causing them to spiral out to larger orbits. At the same time the slower-moving outer satellite decelerates the outer ring particles as they pass by, causing them to spiral inward. The result is a narrow, well-defined ring.

shepherd; → moon.

separ (#)

Fr.: bouclier, écran   

1) A broad piece of armor carried on the arm as a defense against swords, arrows, etc.
2) A person or thing that protects or defends. → heat shield; → ozone shield; → self-shielding; → shielding effect.

M.E. shelde, from O.E. scield, scild, related to sciell "seashell, eggshell;" cf. Du. schild, Ger. Schild, Goth. skildus; PIE base *(s)kel- "to cut."

Separ "shield," from Mid.Pers. spar "shield;" cf. Skt. phalaka- "board, lath, leaf, shield," phálati "(he) splits;" Gk. aspalon "skin, hide," spolas "flayed skin," sphalassein "to cleave, to disrupt;" O.H.G. spaltan "to split;" Goth. spilda "board;" PIE base *(s)p(h)el- "to split, to break off."

shielding effect
  اُسکر ِ سپر   
oskar-e separ

Fr.: effet d'écran   

The decrease in attraction between an electron and the nucleus in any atom with more than one → electron shell. The repulsion forces from other electrons in shells cause the net force on electrons in outer shells to be significantly smaller in magnitude. Also known as → screening effect.

shield; → effect;


Fr.: décalage   

A change in place or position, in particular a change in wavelength, causing a movement of a spectral band or line. → redshift; → blueshift.

Shift, M.E., from O.E. sciftan "to divide, arrange"; akin to O.N. skipa "to arrange, assign."

Kib "shift" from kibidan "to shift, displace, turn on one side," kibidé "displaced, turned on one side."

  ۱) تابیدن؛ ۲) تاب، فروغ   
1) tâbidan; 2) tâb, foruq

Fr.: 1) briller; 2) éclat   

1) To emit rays of light.
2) Brightness caused by the emission of light.

M.E. s(c)hinen (v.); O.E. scinan "shed light, be radiant;" cf. M.H.G. schinen, O.H.G. skinan; Du. schijnen; Ger. scheinen; Gothic skeinan "to shine, appear;" PIE base *skai- "bright;" cf. Mod.Pers. sâyé "shadow;" Mid.Pers. sâyak "shadow;" Av. a-saya- "throwing no shadow;" Skt. chāya- "shadow;" Gk. skia "shade;" Rus. sijat' "to shine."

Tâbidan, tâb, → radiate; foruq, → gegenschein.

  تش، شوک   
toš, šok

Fr.: choc   

A sharp change in the properties of a gas (density, pressure, temperature).

Shock "sudden blow," from M.Fr. choc "violent attack," from O.Fr. choquer "to strike against, clash;" cf. Du. schokken "to shake, jolt, jerk."

Toš, from Tabari toš "violent blow," batoštən "to strike suddenly," Kurd. tuš "collision," maybe related to Pers. tuš "strength, vigor;" Av. təviši- "strength," tavah- "power;" O.Pers. tauman- "power, strength," tunuvant- "powerful," from tav- "to have power, to be strong, to be able" (related to tavân "power, strength," tavânestan "to be powerful, able;" variants tâv, tâb "power"); cf. Skt. tu- "to be strong, to have authority," tavas-, tavisa- "strong, energetic," tavisi- "power, strength."
Šok, loan from Fr., as above.

shock breakout
  برونزنی ِ شوک، ~ تش   
borunzani-ye šok, ~ toš

Fr.: émergence de l'onde de choc   

A burst of very bright → ultraviolet or → soft X-ray radiation expected to occur in → core-collapse supernovae at the instant when the → supernova shock breaks out of the stellar surface. During the collapse of the progenitor → massive star, the density in the iron core increases drastically. Once the core material reaches → nuclear density, the core rebounds generating a → shock wave that moves outward through the star. When the shock reaches the outermost layers, it ejects them out into space at → relativistic speeds.

shock; breakout "a forceful escape from being confined or restrained," from break, from M.E. breken, O.E. brecan (cf. Du. breken, O.H.G. brehhan, Ger. brechen), from PIE base *bhreg- "to break" (see also → fraction) + → out.

Borunzani "emergence, evasion," from borun, → out, + zani verbal noun of zadan "to strike, beat," from Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill."

shock diamond
  الماس ِتش   
almâs-e toš

Fr.: diamant de choc   

Any of a series of rings/disks that are formed in a jet flow exhausting a → nozzle when there is a huge difference between the exit pressure and the ambient pressure. At sea level, the exhaust pressure might be lower than the thick atmosphere. In contrast, at very high altitudes, the exhaust pressure might be higher than the thin atmosphere. Shock diamonds can appear just as a rocket is taking off, or at high altitudes when it shifts into → supersonic speed. Shock diamonds are also known as Mach diamonds, → Mach disks, Mach rings, doughnut tails, or thrust diamonds.

shock; → diamond.

shock front
  پیشان ِ تش، ~ شوک   
pišân-e toš, ~ šok

Fr.: front de choc   

The boundary over which the physical conditions undergo an abrupt change because of a → shock wave.

shock; → front.

shock wave
  موج ِ تش، ~ شوک   
mowj-e toš, ~ šok

Fr.: onde de choc   

A narrow region of abrupt, nearly discontinuous change in the physical characteristics of a medium in which the flow of a fluid changes from subsonic to supersonic. Across a shock wave there is always an extremely rapid rise in pressure, temperature, and density of the fluid.

shock; → wave.

shocked quartz
  کو‌آرتز ِ تشیده، ~ شوکیده   
kuârtz-e tošidé, ~ šokidé

Fr.: quartz choqué   

A form of quartz that has a deformed microscopic structure caused by intense pressure which alters the crystalline structure of quartz along planes inside the crystal. It was first discovered after underground nuclear bomb testing. It is found worldwide at the boundary between Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks. This is further evidence (in addition to iridium enrichment) that the transition between the two geological eras was caused by a large meteorite impact.

shock; → impact.

shooting star
šahâb (#)

Fr.: étoile filante   

Colloquial name for → meteor.

Shooting, from shoot (v.); M.E. shoten; O.E. sceotan "to shoot" (cf. O.N. skjota, Du. schieten, Ger. schießen), from PIE base *skeud- "to shoot, to chase, to throw;" → star.

Šahâb, → meteor.

<< < -sc Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sco sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha She sho sid sig SIM sim Sin ske sle smo soc sol sol sol Sol Som sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suf sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys > >>