An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1333
shock front
  پیشان ِ تش، ~ شوک   
pišân-e toš, ~ šok

Fr.: front de choc   

The boundary over which the physical conditions undergo an abrupt change because of a → shock wave.

shock; → front.

shock wave
  موج ِ تش، ~ شوک   
mowj-e toš, ~ šok

Fr.: onde de choc   

A narrow region of abrupt, nearly discontinuous change in the physical characteristics of a medium in which the flow of a fluid changes from subsonic to supersonic. Across a shock wave there is always an extremely rapid rise in pressure, temperature, and density of the fluid.

shock; → wave.

shocked quartz
  کو‌آرتز ِ تشیده، ~ شوکیده   
kuârtz-e tošidé, ~ šokidé

Fr.: quartz choqué   

A form of quartz that has a deformed microscopic structure caused by intense pressure which alters the crystalline structure of quartz along planes inside the crystal. It was first discovered after underground nuclear bomb testing. It is found worldwide at the boundary between Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks. This is further evidence (in addition to iridium enrichment) that the transition between the two geological eras was caused by a large meteorite impact.

shock; → impact.

shooting star
  شهاب   
šahâb (#)

Fr.: étoile filante   

Colloquial name for → meteor.

Shooting, from shoot (v.); M.E. shoten; O.E. sceotan "to shoot" (cf. O.N. skjota, Du. schieten, Ger. schießen), from PIE base *skeud- "to shoot, to chase, to throw;" → star.

Šahâb, → meteor.

short
  کوتاه   
kutâh (#)

Fr.: court   

1) Having little length. Not tall or high.
2) Lasting for only a small amount of time.

M.E. schort; O.E. sceort; cf. O.N. skorta "to be short of," skort "shortness;" O.H.G. scurz "short."

Kutâh "short," related to kucak "small," kudak "child, infant;" Mid.Pers. kôtâh "low," kôtak "small, young; baby;" Av. kutaka- "little, small."

short circuit
  گردراه‌بند   
gardrâhband

Fr.: court-circuit   

A relatively low → resistance contact, usually accidental, between two points of an → electric circuit with initially different → potential. A short circuit brings about a flow of excess → electric current that can damage the circuit and present a danger for the user.

short; → circuit.

Gardrâhband, literally "link, bind, bond in circuit," from gardrâh, → circuit, + band, → band.

short-period comet
  دنباله‌دار ِ کوتاه-دوره   
dombâledâr-e kutâh-dowré

Fr.: comète à courte période   

A comet with a period less than 200 years. Same as → periodic comet.

short; → period; → comet.

short-period variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ کوتاه-دوره   
vartande-ye kutâh-dowré

Fr.: variable à courte période   

A variable star that has a relatively short period with respect to stars of similar types.

short; → period; → variable.

shortage
  کمبود   
kambud (#)

Fr.: pénurie   

1) A deficiency in quantity.
2) The amount of such → deficiency.

From → short + suffix -age.

Kambud, from kam "little, few, deficient, scarce" + bud, from budan, → exist.

shot effect
  نوفه‌ی ِ شاتکی   
nufe-ye Schottky

Fr.: effet Schottky   

Same as → Schottky noise; → shot noise.

Translation of Ger. Schroteffekt, from Schrot "small shot, buckshot" + Effekt; → effect.

shot noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ شاتکی   
nufe-ye Schottky

Fr.: bruit de grenaille   

Same as → Schottky noise and → shot effect.

shot effect.

Schottky noise.

shoulder
  دوش، سفت   
duš (#), soft (#)

Fr.: épaule   

The upper joint of each of a person's → arms and the part of the → body between this and the → neck.

M.E. schuldre, sholder, shulder, schulder, from O.E. sculdra, sculdor, akin to Du. schouder, Ger. Schulter.

Duš "shoulder;" Mid.Pers. dôš "shoulder;" Av. daoš- "shoulder;" cf. Skt. dós- "shoulder."
Soft "shoulder;" Mid.Pers. suft.

shoulder blade
  شانه، کتف   
šâné (#), ketf (#)

Fr.: omoplate   

scapula.

shoulder; blade, M.E.; O.E. blæd "blade of grass;" cognate with Du. blad, Ger. Blatt.

Šâné, ketf, → scapula.

shower
  رگبار، تندبار   
ragbâr, tondbâr (#)

Fr.: 1) averse; 2) gerbe   

1) A brief, abrupt precipitation from a cloud, characterized by the suddenness with which it begins and ends and by the rapid changes in intensity.
2) An abundant flow; an outpouring, such as → cosmic-ray shower; → air shower; → meteor shower.

M.E. shour; O.E. scur "short fall of rain, fall of missiles or blows;" cf. O.N. skur, O.S., O.H.G. scur, Ger. Schauer.

Ragbâr "cloudburst," from rag "cloudburst; thunder," → rain + bâr "raining, rain," from bâridan, → rain.
Tondbâr, with tond "fast," → velocity.

shower meteor
  شهاب ِ بارانی، ~ رگباری   
šahâb-e bârâni, ~ ragbâri

Fr.: météore de la pluie, ~ ~ l'averse   

A → meteor that is part of a group moving in the same orbit around the Sun. → meteor shower.

meteor; → shower.

shutter
  بستار   
bastâr (#)

Fr.: obturateur   

1) A pair of rolling lids that are used to open or close the dome slit. Same as → dome shutter.
2) A mechanical device that controls the time during which light is admitted in an optical system.

Shutter, from shut (v.), from O.E. scyttan from W.Gmc. *skutjanan + → -er.

Bastâr, from bast, past tense stem of bastan + -âr. Bastan, from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind, → band. The suffix -âr creates agent nouns (as in xaridâr, virâstâr, foruxtâr, nemudâr, etc.).

SI system
  راژمان ِ SI   
râžmân-e SI

Fr.: système international   

The system of → SI units.

SI units.

SI units
  یکاهای ِ SI   
yekâhâ-ye SI

Fr.: Système International   

A coherent and rationalized system of units, in common use in physics since 1969. The seven basic units are the → meter, the → kilogram, the → second, the → ampere, the → kelvin, the → mole, and the → candela. Same as international system of units.

SI, from Fr. Système Internationale d'unités; → unit.

sibling
  برخا، همشیر   
barxâ, hamšir (#)

Fr.: enfant de mêmes parents   

A person's brother or sister.

M.E., from O.E. sibling "relative, kinsman," from sibb "kinship, relationship; love, friendship," cf. O.Saxon sibba, M.Du. sibbe, O.H.G. sippa, Ger. Sippe "kin, related," Icelandic sifi "related."

Barxâ, from bar- first sylaable of barâdar, → brother, + xâ-, short for xâhar (xwâhar), → sister.
Hamšir, literally "of the same milk," more specifically "sucking the same breast." However, a hamšir may not be a person's brother or sister.

sickle
  داس   
dâs (#)

Fr.: faucille   

1) An implement for cutting grain, grass, etc., consisting of a curved, hook-like blade mounted in a short handle (Dictionary.com).
2) Astro.: (initial capital letter) The six bright stars that mark the lion's head and chest in the → Leo constellation.

M.E. sikel, O.E. sicol; cf. Du. zikkel, Ger. Sichel, from L. secula, from sec(are) "to cut," → section, + -ula, → -ule.

Dâs, from Mid.Pers. dâs "sickle," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *das- "to heap; arrange;" cf. Av. spra.dāta- "heaped up with good things;" related to Pers. dasté "group,", andâzé, → measure, hendesé, → geometry.

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