# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 1353
 siemens (S)   زیمنس   siemens (#)Fr.: siemens   The SI unit of electrical conductance, equal to the reciprocal of the ohm and replacing the equivalent MKS unit.Named for the German electrical engineer Werner von Siemens (1816-1892). sieve of Eratosthenes   غربال ِ اراتوستنس   qarbâl-e Eratosthenes (#)Fr.: crible d'Eratosthène   A classical method of finding all → prime numbers up to any given number n. The method consists of listing all positive integers from 2 up to the given number and then deleting some of them sequentially in steps. For example, if we wish to find the primes less than or equal to 50, we proceed as follows. All integers from 2 to 50 are first written. The integers that are divisible by 2, other than 2, are crossed out from the list. Since 3 is the first integer greater than 2 that is not removed, all the integers divisible by 3, other than 3, are crossed out. We do the same with 5 and then 7. Since all composite integers ≤ 50 are divisible by 2, 3, 5, or 7 (i.e. ≤ √50), all the remaining integers not deleted are prime numbers: 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, and 47.M.E. sive, O.E. sife "sieve;" cf. M.Du. seve, Du. zeef, O.H.G. sib, Ger. Sieb, of unknown origin. Related to sift.Qarbâl (variants qarbil, qarbir, qelber, qalbur, gerbâl), probably related to the PIE base *krei- "to sieve, separate;" cf. Gk. krinein "to separate, decide, judge," krisis "decision;" L. cribrum "sieve" (Fr. crible), cernere "to sift, separate;" O.E. hriddel "sieve;" O.Ir. criathar; O.Welsh cruitr "sieve." Pers. qarbâl loaned in Ar. as gharbala "to sift," itself loaned in It. garbellare; M.Fr. garbeler "to sift;" E. garble "to sift impurities from." sievert (Sv)   سیورت   sievert (#)Fr.: sievert   The SI unit for the dose equivalent of ionizing radiation. One sievert represents a dosage of 1 → joule per kg of tissue, absorbed from the ionizing radiation. The effect of radiation depends on its total amount of energy, the type of radiation, and the energy levels of particular particles. The dose equivalent in sieverts of radiation is the product of the absorbed dose in → gray (Gy)s and a dimensionless numeric factor, called the quality factor or relative biological effectiveness, dependent on the type of radiation. The sievert has replaced the → rem as the unit of dose equivalent. 1 rem = 10-2 Sv.The unit honors the Swedish physicist Rolf Sievert (1898-1966), who worked over many years to measure and standardize the radiation doses used in cancer treatment. sight   دید   did (#)Fr.: visée   The act or fact of seeing; field of vision. → line of sight.M.E., from O.E. gesiht, gesihð "thing seen;" cf. Dan. sigte, Swed. sigt, M.Du. sicht, Du. zicht, O.H.G. siht, Ger. Sicht, Gesicht, related to → sign.Did "sight, vision," past stem of didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen"). sightline   دید-خط   did-xattFr.: ligne de visée   → sight; → line. sign   نشان، نشانه   nešân, nešâné (#)Fr.: signe   1) A conventional or arbitrary mark, figure, or symbol used as an abbreviation for the word or words it represents. Related terms: → signal, → signature, → symbol, → index. 2) Math.: A plus sign or minus sign used as a symbol for indicating addition or subtraction; also a sign for indicating the positive or negative value of a quantity. 3) → sign of the zodiac.M.E., from O.Fr. signe "sign, mark, signature," from L. signum "mark, token, indication, symbol," from PIE base *sekw- "to see."Nešân "sign, mark," from Mid.Pers. nišân "sign, mark, omen," nišitan "to gaze, stare, look into," niš in marv.niš "taking omen, foretelling, or divining from birds," nišak "clear, evident," from Proto-Iranian *niiaš- "to show," from *ni- "down, below," → ni- (PIE), + *iaš- "to show, appear;" cf. Armenian loanword niš "sign, mark, spot," loaned also in Syriac as nyš "sign" (Cheung 2007). sign of the zodiac   برج   borj (#)Fr.: signe du zodiaque   One of the 12 constellations (in fact 13) making up the → zodiac.→ sign; → zodiac.Borj originally "tower," most probably related to Pers. borz "height, magnitude, greatness," boland "high," bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. burz "height," buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. and E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg; PIE base *bhergh- "high." Borj may have been loaned into Ar. from Mid.Pers. The meaning extension of borj to its astronomical sense of zodiacal sign may have arisen from the conception of the zodiac as a barrier between heaven and Earth through which access was gained by means of twelve gates. signal   نشال   nešâlFr.: signal   1) Useful part of the received information that can be distinguished from noise. 2) Information transmitted by means of a modulated current or an electromagnetic wave and received by telephone, radio, television, etc.M.E., from O.Fr. signal, from M.L. signale "a signal," from L.L. signalis (adj.) "used as a signal, pertaining to a sign," from L. signum "signal, sign."Nešâl, from neš- base of nešân meaning → sign + -âl, → -al. signal-to-noise ratio   وابَر ِ نشال-به-نوفه   vâbar-e nešâl-bé-nuféFr.: rapport signal sur bruit   Concept used to quantify the effects of noise. It is the ratio of a signal to the standard deviation of the signal.→ signal; → noise; → ratio. signature   نشانزد   nešânzadFr.: signature   1) Physics, Chem.: A distinctive trace or sign that indicates the presence of a substance or the occurrence of a physical process or event. 2) Telecommunication: The complete set of electromagnetic and/or acoustic signals received, e.g., from an infrared source, a radio or radar transmitter, an aircraft, or a ship. Signatures may consist of analog or digital signals, or both, and may be analyzed to indicate the nature of their source and assist in its recognition.M.Fr. signature, from M.L. signatura "sign," in classical L. "the matrix of a seal," from signatus, p.p. of signare "to mark, sign," → sign.Nešânzad, literally "striking a mark, sign" (cf. angošt zadan "fingerprint"), from nešân, → sign, + zad past stem of zadan "to strike, beat; to do; to play an instrument" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill"). significance   نشاناری   nešânâriFr.: significativité   1) The state or quality of being significant; → meaning; importance. 2) Statistics: An estimated measure of the degree to which a result is not merely a matter of chance. See also → significance level, → significance testing.From L. significantia "meaning, force, energy," from significans, present participle of significare, → signify.Nešânâri, noun from nešânâr, → significant. significance level   تراز ِ نشاناری   tarâz-e nešânâriFr.: niveau de significativité   The level of → Type I error which one is willing to risk in a → test of significance. Also called level of significance.→ significance; → level. significance testing   آزمون ِ نشاناری   âzmun-e nešanâriFr.: test de significativité   Statistics: A procedure that is used to decide whether to accept or reject the → null hypothesis or to determine whether observed samples differ significantly from expected results. Also called → test of significance and → rule of decision.→ significance; → test. significant   نشانار   nešânârFr.: significatif   1) Having a special or suggestive → meaning. 2) Statistics: Of or pertaining to a result that is not plausible to occur by chance.From L. significant-, stem of significans, from significare, "to → signify."Nešânâr, from nešân, → sign, + âr short form of âvar present stem of âvardan "to bring, adduce, cause, produce." significant digit   رقم ِ نشانار   raqam-e nešânârFr.: chiffre significatif   The number of digits used to express a measured or calculated quantity. Rules for deciding the number of significant digits: The leftmost digit which is not a zero is the most significant digit. If the number does not have a decimal point, the rightmost digit which is not a zero is the least significant digit. If the number does have a decimal point, the rightmost significant digit is the least significant digit, even if it's a zero. Every digit between the least and most significant digits should be counted as a significant digit.→ significant; → digit. signification   نشانارش   nešânârešFr.: signification   1) Something that is signified, → meaning, sense. 2) The act of signifying. → significance, → significant, → level of significance.Verbal noun of → signify. signify   نشاناردن   nešânârdanFr.: signifier   To make known; to be a sign of; to → mean. → significance, → significant, → signification.M.E. signifien, from O.Fr. signifier, from L. significare "to make a sign, indicate, mention, denote."Nešânâridan, from nešânâr, → significant, + -dan suffix of infinitives. silence   بیدنگی   bidengi (#)Fr.: silence   1) Absence of sound or noise. 2) The state or fact of being silent.Noun from → silent. silent   بیدنگ   bideng (#)Fr.: silencieux   1) Making no sound; quiet; still. 2) Refraining from speech.From L. silentem (nominative silens) "still, calm, quiet," p.p. of silere "to be quiet or still," of unknown origin.Bideng, from Kurd. (Kurmanji) bêdeng, bêdêng, Kurd. (Sorani) bedang, from bi- "without," → a-, + deng "sound, voice," variants dong, dang, bâng, → Big Bang. silex   سیلکس، آتشزنه، چخماق   sileks (#), âtašzané (#), caxmâq (#)Fr.: silex   A type of heat-resistant glass, especially in the form of flint or → quartz.L. silex "hard stone, flint." Âtašzané "that used for kindling, ignitor," from âtaš, → fire, + zadan "to strike," → beat + -é instrument suffix. Caxmâq loan from Turkish.