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silver noqré (#) Fr.: argent A metallic → chemical element;
symbol Ag (L. argentum). → Atomic number
47; → atomic weight 107.8682;
→ melting point 961.93°C;
→ boiling point 2,212°C;
→ specific gravity 10.5 at 20°C. Pure silver is
nearly white, lustrous, soft, very ductile, malleable, and an excellent
conductor of heat and electricity. M.E. silver(e), selver(e), selfer;
O.E. seolfor "silver;" cf. O.S. silvbar, O.N. silfr,
M.Du. silver, Du. zilver, O.H.G. sillabar, Ger. silber,
Goth. silubr, akin to Serbo-Croatian srebro,
Rus. serebo, Lith. sidabras "silver." Noqré from Sogdian nâkartak "uncoined (silver)," literally "undone," from nâ- negation prefix "not, no" (Mid.Pers. ne, O.Pers. naiy, Av. na-, (particle of negation noit), Skt. na-, (ned), Gk. né- "not," L. ne-, in-, un-, PIE *ne-) + kartak "done," p.p. of kardan "to do, to make;" kâr "work," variant kar (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base k^{w}er- "to do, to make"), Sogdian nâktênê "of silver." Note that another word in Pers. for silver is sim, which has a semantic form comparable to that of noqré, since it derives from Mid.Pers. asêm, from Gk. asemon "without mark, uncoined, shapeless, formless," from argurion asemon "uncoined money." |
SIMBAD SIMBAD Fr.: SIMBAD A large on-line astronomical database, developed at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, → CDS in France. It provides a large collection of astronomical data, including cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. SIMBAD, short for Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data. |
similar hamânand (#) Fr.: similaire 1) Geometry: Having the same shape; representing the same figure drawn to
different scales (same corresponding angles and proportional sides). From Fr. similaire, from L. similis "like," → simulate. Hamânand, contraction of hammânand, from ham-, → com-, + mânand "resembling, like," → simulate. |
similar matrices mâtrishâ-ye hamânand (#) Fr.: matrices similaires Two → square matrices A and B that are related by B = X^{-1}AX, where X is a square → nonsingular matrix. |
similar polygons candbarhâ-ye hamânand Fr.: polygone similaires Polygons that are exactly the same shape, but can be different sizes. |
similarity hamânandi (#) Fr.: similarité The state of being similar; likeness; resemblance. |
similarity transformation tarâdiseš-e hamânandi Fr.: transformation de similarité 1) A transformation that preserves angles and changes all distances in the same ratio. → similarity; → transformation. |
simple sâdé (#) Fr.: simple 1) Chem.: Composed of only one → substance
or → element. M.E., from O.Fr. simple, from L. simplus "simple, single," variant of simplex, from PIE root *sem- "one, together;" cf. Pers. ham "together," → com-, Skt. sam "together;" + *plac- "-fold," from PIE *plek- "to plait," → multiply. Sâdé "simple, unmixed, smooth, erased, plain;" cf. Khotanese sāta- "smooth;" Baluchi sāt/sāy-, sāh- "to shave;" Av. si-, sā- "to sharpen, cut;" Skt. śā- "to sharpen, whet" (Cheung 2007); see also → precise. |
simple event ruydâd-e sâdé Fr.: événement simple Statistics: An event consisting of a single point of the → sample space. |
simple fraction barxe-ye sâdé Fr.: fraction simple A fraction in which the → numerator and → denominator are positive → integer numbers. Compare → compound fraction. |
simple harmonic motion jonbeš-e hamâhang-e sâdé Fr.: mouvement harmonique The motion of a body subjected to a restraining force which is directly proportional to the displacement from a fixed point in the line of motion. The equation of simple harmonic motion is given by x = A sin(ωt + θ_{0}), where x is the body's displacement from equilibrium position, A is the → amplitude, or the magnitude of harmonic oscillations, ω is the → angular frequency, t is the time elapsed, and θ_{0} is the → initial phase angle. |
simple harmonic oscillator navešgar-e hamâhang-e sâdé Fr.: oscillateur harmonique simple An oscillator whose force is proportional to its extension, according to → Hooke's law. The way the oscillator moves is called → simple harmonic motion. → simple; → harmonic; → oscillator. |
simple population porineš-e sâdé Fr.: population simple A set of stars resulting from a spatially (≤ few pc) and temporally (≤ Myr) correlated star formation event. → simple; → population. |
simple root riše-ye sâdé Fr.: racine simple A → rootx_{0} of function f(x), if f(x_{0}) = 0 and df/dx | x_{0} = 0. See also → double root. |
simplex taktâft Fr.: simplexe A generalization of the simplest closed configuration that can be made from straight line segments. For example, a → triangle is a 2-simplex because it is in two → dimensions, and → tetrahedron is a 3-simplex because it is in three dimensions (Steven Schwartzman, An Etymological Dictionary of Mathematical Terms Used in English, 1994). Simplex, literally "uncomplicated, → simple," from sim-, from PIE root *sem- "one, once, together" + plek- "to fold." "folded [only] once." Taktâft, literally "folded once," from tak "→ single, alone," + tâft, contraction of tâfté "plated, twisted, fold," as in hamtâft, → complex. |
simplex method raveš-e taktâfti Fr.: méthode du simplexe An → algorithm for solving the classical → linear programming problem; developed by George B. Dantzig in 1947. The simplex method is an → iterative method, solving a system of → linear equations in each of its steps, and stopping when either the → optimum is reached, or the solution proves infeasible. The basic method remained pretty much the same over the years, though there were many refinements targeted at improving performance (e.g. using sparse matrix techniques), numerical accuracy and stability, as well as solving special classes of problems, such as mixed-integer programming (Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing, FOLDOC). |
simplification sâde-kard, sâde-šod Fr.: simplification The act of simplifying, or the fact of being simplified. Verbal noun of → simplify. |
simplify sâdé kardan (#) Fr.: simplifier 1) To make less complex or complicated. |
simulacra simulâkrâ Fr.: simulacres Minute images or replicas of objects supposed by ancient atomist philosophers to be shed from any object and used in the explanation of vision. According to Democritus (c. 460-c. 370 BC) and Epicurus (341-270 BC), these replicas or effigies, called eidola, were perpetually peeled off the surfaces of things and caused vision by entering in the eye. L. translation of eidola by Lucretius (1st Century BC), from L. simulacrum "likeness, image," from simulare "to → simulate." |
simulate mânandidan, hamânand sâxtan Fr.: simuler To create a likeness or model of something (a situation, system, or the like). M.E., from L. simulatus, p.p. of simulare "to imitate," from stem of similis "like;" cognate with Pers. ham "together, with; same, equally, even" (Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-). Mânadidan verb from mânand "resembling, like," variant mânestan "to resemble;" Mid.Pers. mânag "like, resembling;" Av. man- "to resemble;" hamânad sâxtan, from hamânand, from ham-, as above, + mânad + sâxtan "to make, build." |
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