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silicic acid asid silisik (#) Fr.: acide silicique A general name for a family of chemical compounds containing the element silicon attached to oxide and hydroxyl groups. |
silicon silisiom (#) Fr.: silicium A non-metallic chemical element; symbol Si. Atomic number 14; atomic weight 28.0855; melting point 1,410°C; boiling point 2,355°C; specific gravity 2.33 at 25°C. It occurs in a combined state in minerals and rocks and constituting more than one fourth of the earth's crust. From silic(a), from L. silex (genitive silicis) "flint, pebble" + -on, as in carbon and boron. Silisiom, from Fr. silicium, from silic(a), as above, + -ium as in magnesium, barium. |
silicon burning suzeš-e silisiom Fr.: combustion du silicium The → nucleosynthetic process taking place in the interior of → massive stars whereby → silicon is transmuted into iron, nickel, and neighboring nuclei collectively called the → iron peak elements. |
silk abrišam (#) Fr.: soie The soft, lustrous fiber obtained as a filament from the cocoon of the silkworm (Dictionary.com). M.E., from O.E. seolc, sioluc, from L. sericum "silk garment, silk," from neuter of sericus "silken," from Gk. serikos, from Seres, an eastern Asian people, probably the Chinese (cf. Chinese si "silk", Manchurian sirghe, Mongolian sirkek). Abrišam "silk," from Mid.Pers. abrešom "silk," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *au-uris-, from *uris- "to turn, spin;" cf. rešté "thread, line, file," reštan, ristan, "to spin;" Mid.Pers. 'rws- "to turn to;" Av. uruuaēs- "to twist, turn." |
Silk damping mirâyi-ye Silk Fr.: amortissement de Silk The smoothing of primordial → density fluctuations at high frequencies caused by photon → diffusion. Before the → decoupling era, photons and → baryons were tightly coupled to each other by → Compton scattering. However, the transition to a transparent → Universe was not instantaneous. As the → opacity of the Universe dropped, the photons started diffusing away from the positions they had while opaque, hence undergoing a → random walk. Since the → acoustic waves in the decoupling era were driven by photon pressure, the photon diffusion also led to damping of the → baryon acoustic oscillations. Silk damping suppresses all perturbations with masses smaller than about 10^{13} Msun. The implication for a theory of → structure formation is that individual galaxies must have formed in a → top-down structure formation mechanism, i.e. by the fragmentation of larger objects. However, in theories of structure formation which include → non-baryonic dark matter galaxies can form from smaller objects in a → bottom-up scenario. Joseph Silk (1942-); → damping. |
silver noqré (#) Fr.: argent A metallic → chemical element;
symbol Ag (L. argentum). → Atomic number
47; → atomic weight 107.8682;
→ melting point 961.93°C;
→ boiling point 2,212°C;
→ specific gravity 10.5 at 20°C. Pure silver is
nearly white, lustrous, soft, very ductile, malleable, and an excellent
conductor of heat and electricity. M.E. silver(e), selver(e), selfer;
O.E. seolfor "silver;" cf. O.S. silvbar, O.N. silfr,
M.Du. silver, Du. zilver, O.H.G. sillabar, Ger. silber,
Goth. silubr, akin to Serbo-Croatian srebro,
Rus. serebo, Lith. sidabras "silver." Noqré from Sogdian nâkartak "uncoined (silver)," literally "undone," from nâ- negation prefix "not, no" (Mid.Pers. ne, O.Pers. naiy, Av. na-, (particle of negation noit), Skt. na-, (ned), Gk. né- "not," L. ne-, in-, un-, PIE *ne-) + kartak "done," p.p. of kardan "to do, to make;" kâr "work," variant kar (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base k^{w}er- "to do, to make"), Sogdian nâktênê "of silver." Note that another word in Pers. for silver is sim, which has a semantic form comparable to that of noqré, since it derives from Mid.Pers. asêm, from Gk. asemon "without mark, uncoined, shapeless, formless," from argurion asemon "uncoined money." |
SIMBAD SIMBAD Fr.: SIMBAD A large on-line astronomical database, developed at the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg, → CDS in France. It provides a large collection of astronomical data, including cross-identifications, bibliography, and measurements for astronomical objects outside the solar system. SIMBAD, short for Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data. |
similar hamânand (#) Fr.: similaire 1) Geometry: Having the same shape; representing the same figure drawn to
different scales (same corresponding angles and proportional sides). From Fr. similaire, from L. similis "like," → simulate. Hamânand, contraction of hammânand, from ham-, → com-, + mânand "resembling, like," → simulate. |
similar matrices mâtrishâ-ye hamânand (#) Fr.: matrices similaires Two → square matrices A and B that are related by B = X^{-1}AX, where X is a square → nonsingular matrix. |
similar polygons candbarhâ-ye hamânand Fr.: polygone similaires Polygons that are exactly the same shape, but can be different sizes. |
similarity hamânandi (#) Fr.: similarité The state of being similar; likeness; resemblance. |
similarity transformation tarâdiseš-e hamânandi Fr.: transformation de similarité 1) A transformation that preserves angles and changes all distances in the same ratio. → similarity; → transformation. |
simple sâdé (#) Fr.: simple 1) Chem.: Composed of only one → substance
or → element. M.E., from O.Fr. simple, from L. simplus "simple, single," variant of simplex, from PIE root *sem- "one, together;" cf. Pers. ham "together," → com-, Skt. sam "together;" + *plac- "-fold," from PIE *plek- "to plait," → multiply. Sâdé "simple, unmixed, smooth, erased, plain;" cf. Khotanese sāta- "smooth;" Baluchi sāt/sāy-, sāh- "to shave;" Av. si-, sā- "to sharpen, cut;" Skt. śā- "to sharpen, whet" (Cheung 2007); see also → precise. |
simple event ruydâd-e sâdé Fr.: événement simple Statistics: An event consisting of a single point of the → sample space. |
simple fraction barxe-ye sâdé Fr.: fraction simple A fraction in which the → numerator and → denominator are positive → integer numbers. Compare → compound fraction. |
simple harmonic motion jonbeš-e hamâhang-e sâdé Fr.: mouvement harmonique The motion of a body subjected to a restraining force which is directly proportional to the displacement from a fixed point in the line of motion. The equation of simple harmonic motion is given by x = A sin(ωt + θ_{0}), where x is the body's displacement from equilibrium position, A is the → amplitude, or the magnitude of harmonic oscillations, ω is the → angular frequency, t is the time elapsed, and θ_{0} is the → initial phase angle. |
simple harmonic oscillator navešgar-e hamâhang-e sâdé Fr.: oscillateur harmonique simple An oscillator whose force is proportional to its extension, according to → Hooke's law. The way the oscillator moves is called → simple harmonic motion. → simple; → harmonic; → oscillator. |
simple population porineš-e sâdé Fr.: population simple A set of stars resulting from a spatially (≤ few pc) and temporally (≤ Myr) correlated star formation event. → simple; → population. |
simple root riše-ye sâdé Fr.: racine simple A → rootx_{0} of function f(x), if f(x_{0}) = 0 and df/dx | x_{0} = 0. See also → double root. |
simplex taktâft Fr.: simplexe A generalization of the simplest closed configuration that can be made from straight line segments. For example, a → triangle is a 2-simplex because it is in two → dimensions, and → tetrahedron is a 3-simplex because it is in three dimensions (Steven Schwartzman, An Etymological Dictionary of Mathematical Terms Used in English, 1994). Simplex, literally "uncomplicated, → simple," from sim-, from PIE root *sem- "one, once, together" + plek- "to fold." "folded [only] once." Taktâft, literally "folded once," from tak "→ single, alone," + tâft, contraction of tâfté "plated, twisted, fold," as in hamtâft, → complex. |
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