An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1334

Fr.: soliton   

Math., Physics: A solution of a certain type of partial differential equation that represents a solitary wave. A soliton is a self-reinforcing wave that maintains its shape while it travels at constant speed. Solitons are caused by a cancellation of nonlinear and dispersive effects in the medium.

From solit(ary) + → -on.

xoristân (#)

Fr.: solstice   

Either of the two points on the → ecliptic at which the apparent → longitude of the → Sun is 90° or 270°. Also the time at which the Sun is at either point. Solstices occur when the Earth's axis is oriented directly toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes. → summer solstice, → winter solstice.

M.E., from O.Fr. solstice, from L. solstitium "point at which the sun seems to stand still," from sol, → sun, cognate with Pers. xor, xoršid, hur, as below, + p.p. stem of sistere "to come to a stop, make stand still," akin to Pers. istâdan "to stand," as below.

Xoristân, is composed of two components. The first one xor "sun," variant hur; Mid.Pers. xwar "sun;" Av. hū-, hvar- "sun;" cf. Skt. surya-, Gk. helios, L. sol, cognate with E. sun, as above; PIE base *sawel- "sun." The second component istân "standing," from istâdan "to stand;" Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthā- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

solsticial colure
  کلدم ِ خوریستانی   
koldom-e xoristâni

Fr.: colure de solstice   

The great circle of the celestial sphere which passes through the poles of the celestial equator and the solstice points. → equinoctial colure.

Solsticial, adj. of → solstice; → colure.

solsticial points
  نقطه‌های ِ خوریستانی   
noqtehâ-ye xoristâni

Fr.: points solsticiaux   

The two points of the ecliptic the most distant from the equator.

Solsticial, adj. of → solstice; → point.


Fr.: soluble   

Chem.: Capable of being dissolved .

M.E., from M.Fr. soluble, from L.L. solubilis "that may be loosened or dissolved," from stem of L. solvere "loosen, dissolve," → solve.

Luyidani, from luyidan, → solve + -i, → -able.


Fr.: soluté   

Chem.: A substance which is dissolved in a solvent to form a solution.

From L. solutus, p.p. of solvere "to loosen, dissolve," → solve.

P.p. of luyidan, → solve.


Fr.: solution   

1) The act of solving a problem, question. The state of being solved.
2a) Math.: The process of determining the answer to a problem. The answer itself.
2b) Math.: Of a differential equation, any function which, when put into the equation, converts it into an identity.
3) Chem.: The process by which a gas, liquid, or solid is dispersed homogeneously in a gas, liquid, or solid without chemical change. a homogeneous, molecular mixture of two or more substances.

Verbal noun of → solve.


Fr.: solvation   

Any of a class of chemical reactions in which solute and solvent molecules combine.

From solv(ent), → solvent + -ation.

Luyé, from luy- the stem of luyidésolute and luyandésolvent + nuance suffix.


Fr.: 1) résoudre; 2) dissoudre   

1) To find an answer or solution to; clear up; explain. related concept: → dissolve.
2) To make a solution of, as by mixing with liquid.

M.E. solven, from L. solvere "to loosen, dissolve, untie," from PIE *se-lu-, from reflexive pronoun *swe- + base *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart;" cf. Gk. lyein "to loosen, release, untie," O.E. -leosan "to lose," leas "loose;" E. lose, loose and Ger. los derive from this root.

Luyidan, infinitive from stem lu(y)-, from lu, variant of Mod.Pers. las "loose," "slit, cut," luš "torn," lok "torn, piece," lâc "open, wide open;" lu, lunoti "to cut, sever, mow, pluck, tear asunder, destroy," lava "cutting, plucking; what is cut; fragment, piece;" Gk. lyein "to loosen, release, untie," as above. PIE *leu- "to loosen, divide, cut apart".


Fr.: solvant   

Substance having the power of dissolving other substances in it.

Agent noun of → solve.

Sombrero galaxy
  کهکشان ِ سومبررو   
kahkešân-e Sombrero

Fr.: galaxie Sombrero   

A → spiral galaxy in the constellation → Virgo. It was the first galaxy whose rotation was detected. Also named M104 and NGC 4594.

Sp. sombrero "broad-brimmed hat," originally "umbrella or parasol," from sombra "shade," from L.L. subumbrare, from → sub- "under" + umbra "shade, shadow;" → galaxy.

Kahkešân, → galaxy; sombrero, Sp., as above.


Fr.: sonde   

A rocket or balloon carrying instruments to probe conditions in the upper atmosphere.

From Fr. sonde "ounding line; plumb line."

Gomâné "a shaft sunk in order to ascertain the depth of the water when making a subterraneous canal," from Proto-Iranian *vi-mā-, from vi- "apart, away from, out" (cf. Av. vi-; O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + mā- "to measure" (cf. O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure;" Mod.Pers. mâ/mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms âz- "to test;" pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl;" PIE base *me- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum).

sedâyi (#)

Fr.: sonique   

Of, relating to, or being the speed of sound in a medium.

From L. sonus, → sound.

Sedâyi, pertaining to sedâ, → sound.

sonic boom
  غریو ِ صدا   
qariv-e sedâ (#)

Fr.: bang sonique   

A noise caused by a shock wave that emanates from an object traveling at or above the speed of sound.

sonic; boom, M.E. bombon, bummyn "to buzz;" cf. Du. bommen, Ger. bummen, word made by sound imitation.

Qariv "shout, clamour, cry;" sedâyi, → sonic.

sonic point
  نقطه‌ی ِ صدایی   
noqte-ye sedâyi

Fr.: point sonique   

The point where the → stellar wind makes a transition from → subsonic to → supersonic flow. In the particular case of a spherically symmetric wind (thus with no magnetic field), the distance from star, at which the sonic point occurs, is given by: rs = (GM*)/2cs2, where G is the → gravitational constant, M* is the stellar mass, and cs the → sound speed at the sonic point.

sonic; → point.



To gather on a surface either by absorption, adsorption, or a combination of the two processes.

Verb, from sorption, extracted from → absorptionadsorption, from L. sorbere "suck in," from PIE base *srebh- "to suck, absorb" (cf. Arm. arbi "I drank;" Gk. rhopheo "to gulp down;" Lith. srebiu "to drink greedily").

Šamidan, from šam, variant of šâm, as in âšâm, âšâmidan "to drink, to sip;" Av. šam- "to drink, sip, swallow;" Skt. cam, camati "to sip, dirink, lick up, absorb."


Fr.: sorption   

The process of sorbing. The state of being sorbed. → absorption; → adsorption.

Verbal noun of → sorb

Sothic period
  دوره‌ی ِ تیشتری   
dowre-ye Tištari

Fr.: période sothique   

The interval after which the heliacal rising of the star Sirius occurs at the same time of the year. It is a period of 1,460 Sothic years.

From Fr. sothique, from Gk. Sothis, an Egyptian name of Sirius; → period.

Tištari, of or pertaining to Tištarserius; dowré, → period.

Sothic year
  سال ِ تیشتری   
sâl-e Tištari

Fr.: année sothique   

The Egyptian year of 365 days and 6 hours, as distinguished from them Egyptian vague year, which contained 365 days.

From Fr. sothique, from Gk. Sothis, an Egyptian name of Sirius; → year.

Tištari, of or pertaining to Tištarserius; sâl, → year.

  ۱) صدا؛ ۲) دروا   
1) sedâ (#); 2) dorvâ

Fr.: 1) son; 2) sain   

1) A physiological sensation received by the ear. It is caused by a vibrating source and transmitted as a longitudinal pressure wave motion through a material medium such as air.
2a) Free from damage, injury, decay, etc.
2b) Describing an → argumentiff its → reasoning is → valid and all its → premises are → true.
2c) Logic: A formal system is sound if all the → inferences that are permitted by the rules of the system are valid inferences, that is, if no invalid arguments are provable within the system. → soundness.

1) M.E. soun; O.Fr. son, from L. sonus "sound," sonare "to sound;" PIE base *suen- "to sound;" cf. Av. xvan- "to sound;" Pers. xvân-, xvândan "to sing, read;" Skt. svana- "sound," svan- "to sound," svanati "it sounds;" O.E. swinn "music, song" (Cheung 2007).
2) M.E. sund, from O.E. gesund "sound, safe, having the organs and faculties complete and in perfect action," cf. O.S. gisund, O.Fris. sund, Du. gezond, O.H.G. gisunt, Ger. gesund "healthy," as in interjection gesundheit.

1) Sedâ "sound," most probably a Pers. term, since it exists also in Indo-Aryan languages: Skt. (late Vedic): sabda "articulate sound, noise," Pali and Prakriti: sadda "sound, noise," Sindhi: sadu, sado "shout, call," Gujrâti sad "call, voice, echo," Marathi: sad "shouting to," Konkani sad "sound," Sinhali: sada "sound." Therefore, sadâ in Ar. "reverberating noise, echo" maybe a loan from Pers., or a coincidence. Note that for the author of the classical Pers. dictionary Borhân-e Qâte' (India, 1652 A.D.), the Ar. term is a loanword from Pers.
2) Dorvâ (Dehxodâ) "whole, right, just;" Qâyeni, Gonâbâdi, Tabasi, Râvari dorvâx "healthy, whole," dorvâxi "health" (related to Pers. dorud "benediction, praise," dorost "whole, healthy, right"); cf. Sogd. žûk (from *druva-) "healthy;" O.Pers. duruwa- "healthy, firm, secure;" Av. druua- "healthy, firm, sound," druuatāt "health, soundness," drvô.cašman- "of sound eyes;" Skt. dhruvá- "fixed, firm;" → integral.

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