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stage gâmé (#) Fr.: étape A single step or phase in an ongoing process. M.E., from O.Fr. estage "a story or floor of a building, stage for performance," from V.L. *staticum "a place for standing," from L. statum, p.p. of stare "to stand." Gâmé, from gâm "step, pace" (related to âmadan "to come"); Mid.Pers. gâm "step, stride, pace;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE stem *gwem- "to go, come." |
stagnation nâravâni Fr.: stagnation The state or condition of not flowing or running. → stagnation point, → stagnation pressure. L. stagnatum, stagnatus, p.p. of stagnare "to stagnate," from stagnatum "standing water," from PIE root *stag- "to seep drip." Nâravâni, literally "not flowing," from nâ- negation prefix, → un-, + ravân "flowing, running," pr.p. of raftan "to go, walk; to flow;" (Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack"). |
stagnation point noqte-ye nâravâni Fr.: point de stagnation A point where the → flow → velocity is → zero. For example a point around an obstacle where a → flow tube splits into two portions. → stagnation; → point. |
stagnation pressure fešâr-e nâravâni Fr.: pression de stagnation The sum of → static pressure and → dynamic pressure in the → Bernoulli equation. → stagnation; → pressure. |
stallion naryân (#) Fr.: étalon An uncastrated adult male horse, especially one used for breeding. M.E. stalon, from O.Fr. estalon, "uncastrated male horse," cognate with O.H.G. stal "stable," cf. O.H.G. stall "stand, place, stable, stall," Ger. Stall "stable," Stelle "place"), from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand," with derivatives referring to a standing object or place; akin to Pers. istâdan "to stand," → station. Nariyân, from nar "male," → masculine. |
standard estândé (#) Fr.: standard Any set of conditions that describe the normal, desired, or ideal state of something, and that serves a basis for representing or evaluating actual examples of this thing. M.E., from O.Fr. estandart "banner, standard," probably from Frankish *standord; cf. Ger. Standort "standing-point," from standan "to stand," cognate with Pers. istâdan, as below, with the second component conformed to -ard. Estândé, literally "made stand, fixed," p.p. istândan transitive verb of istâdan "to stand" (Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand"). |
standard atmosphere havâsepehr-e estândé (#), javv-e ~ (#) Fr.: atmosphère standard A hypothetical vertical distribution of atmospheric temperature, pressure, and density that, by international agreement, is taken to be representative of the atmosphere for purposes of pressure altimeter calibrations, aircraft performance calculations, aircraft and missile design, ballistic tables, etc. → standard; → atmosphere. |
standard candle šam'-e estândé Fr.: chandelle standard An astronomical object, belonging to some class, that has a known luminosity. In principle, by comparing the known luminosity to the observed brightness, the distance to the object can be derived. The four major primary distance indicators are Cepheids, supernovae, novae, and RR Lyrae variables. The secondary distance indicators include H II regions, globular clusters, brightest red and blue stars. → primary calibrator; → secondary calibrator. |
standard cosmology keyhânšenâsi-ye estândé Fr.: cosmologie standard The conventional → Big Bang model, which is based on two assumptions: the → cosmological principle of homogeneity and isotropy leading to the → Robertson-Walker metric, and → Einstein's field equations of general relativity along with familiar properties of matter. This model is a remarkably successful operating hypothesis describing the evolution of the Universe from 1/100 second after the initial event through to the present day. It provides explanations for several basic problems such as: → Hubble's law of recession of galaxies, interpreted in terms of the expansion of the Universe; the abundances of the → light elements, in excellent agreement with the predictions of → primordial nucleosynthesis; and the thermal spectrum and angular isotropy of the → cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, as expected from a hot, dense early phase of expansion. For a non-standard model, see → ekpyrotic Universe. |
standard deviation kažraft-e estândé Fr.: écart-type The most widely used measure of dispersion of a frequency distribution. It is equal to the positive square root of the → variance. Same as → standard error. Not to be confused with the → root mean square error. |
standard epoch zime-ye estândé Fr.: époque de référence A particular date and time that specifies the reference system to which celestial coordinates are referred. From 1984 the → Julian year is used, as denoted by the prefix J, e.g. J2000.0. |
standard error irang-e estândé Fr.: erreur type Same as → standard deviation. |
standard model model-e estândé, tarzâl-e ~ Fr.: modèle standard The accepted but possibly incomplete theoretical framework which usually describes a set of phenomena. For example, the model that describes the origin of the Universe, or the model concerned with the processes in the interior of the Sun. |
standard model of particle physics model-e estânde-ye fizik-e zarre-yi Fr.: modèle standard de la physique des particules The theory developed since the 1970s, which is based on the theories and discoveries since the 1930s, and aims at explaining the fundamental structure of matter. According to the standard model, everything in the universe is made from a few basic building blocks called fundamental particles, governed by four fundamental forces. The particles occur in two basic types, called quarks and leptons. Three of the four fundamental forces (except gravity) and their carrier particles are included in the Standard Model. The Standard Model has successfully explained almost all experimental results and precisely predicted a wide variety of phenomena. Over time and through many experiments, the Standard Model has become established as a well-tested physics theory. |
standard stars setâregân-e estândé Fr.: étoiles standard Stars for which accurate color indices and/or magnitudes exist, defining a standard system. |
standard system râžmân-e estândé Fr.: système standard Photometric system used as a reference. |
standard temperature and pressure (STP) damâ o fešâr-e estândé Fr.: conditions normales de température et de pression 1) The most commonly used definition is temperature of 273.15 K (0 °C) and
pressure of 1 → atmosphere. → standard; → temperature; → pressure. |
standard time zamân-e estândé Fr.: temps standard The time in any of the 24 internationally agreed time zones into which the Earth's surface is divided. The primary zone is centered on the Greenwich meridian (0° longitude). |
standard values arzešhâ-ye estândé Fr.: valeurs standard Photometric values of selected stars in a standard system. |
standing wave mowj-e istân Fr.: onde stationnaire A wave produced by the simultaneous transmission of two similar wave motions in opposite directions. Same as stationary wave. Standing verbal adjective from stand, cognate with Pers. istâdan, as below; → wave. Istân pr.p. of istâdan "to stand;" Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" O.N. standa, Goth. standan, O.H.G. stantan, Swed. stå, Du. staan, Ger. stehen; O.E. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand;" mowj, → wave. |
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