An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1353

Fr.: substantif   

Grammar: A word or word group functioning syntactically as a noun. Substantives include nouns and → nominals.

M.E., from L.L. substantivus "of substance or being," from L. substantia "being, essence, material," → substance, contraction of "noun substantive" from L. nomen substantivum ("independent noun") as opposed to nomen adiectivum "noun adjective" ("dependent noun").

Ziristin, from zirist, → substance, + -in a suffix of relation.


Fr.: sous-stellaire   

1) Pertaining to a class of objects with a mass less than 8 percent that of the Sun.
2) → substellar point.

sub- + → stellar.

substellar limit
  حدّ ِ زیر-ستاره‌ای   
hadd-e zir-setâre-yi

Fr.: limite sous-stellaire   

The mass limit below which → hydrogen fusion cannot take place, and the cloud collapse cannot lead to the formation of a star. The limit is 0.075 → solar masses, corresponding to about 80 Jupiter masses.

substellar; → limit.

substellar object
  بر‌آخت ِ زیر-ستاره‌ای   
bart-e zir-setâre-yi

Fr.: objet sous-stellaire   

An object with a mass too small to sustain the → proton-proton chain and thus become a true star. See → brown dwarf.

substellar; → object.

substellar point
  نقطه‌ی ِ زیر-ستاره‌ای   
noqte-ye zir-setâre-yi

Fr.: point substellaire   

The point on the Earth, or other body, at which a particular star is directly overhead at a given time.

substellar; → point.


Fr.: nature sous-stellaire   

The fact or condition, for an object, of not being capable to sustain the → hydrogen fusion because of its low mass (less than 0.08 → solar masses).

substellar + → -ity.


Fr.: sous-système   

A coherent component of a larger system.

sub-; → system


Fr.: sous-tendre   

To be opposite and delimit the extent of an angle or side of a geometric figure.

From L. subtendere "to stretch beneath," from → sub- + tendere "to stretch," cognate with Pers. târ "string," tanidan "to weave," as below.

Zirtânidan from zir-, → sub-, + tânidan from tân "thread, warp of a web," tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect), târ "thread, warp, string," related to tur "net, fishing net, snare," from tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave;" Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- "to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to stretch, extend;" tanoti "stretches," tántra- "warp; essence, main point;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch, as above; Lith. tiñklas "net, fishing net, snare," Latv. tikls "net;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch."

subtended angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ زیرتانیده   
zâvie-ye zirtânidé

Fr.: angle sous-tendu   

An angle whose two sides pass through the endpoints of an arc.

Subtended p.p. of → subtend; → angle.

subterrestrial point
  نقطه‌ی ِ زیر-زمینی   
noqte-ye zir-zamini

Fr.: point subterrestre   

The point on the surface of a celestial body where the star is perceived to be directly overhead (in zenith). The sublunar point and subsolar point are the equivalent points for the Moon and Sun, respectively.

sub-; → terrestrial.

naqz (#)

Fr.: subtil   

Fine or delicate in meaning or intent.

M.E. sotil, from O.Fr. sotil, soutil, subtil "adept, adroit; cunning, wise; detailed," from L. subtilis "fine, thin, delicate, finely woven," from → sub- "under" + -tilis, from tela "web, net, warp of a fabric," → texture.

Naqz "subtle, elegant, beautiful, excellent, good."

  زیرکرشیدن، کاهیدن   
zirkaršidan, kâhidan

Fr.: soustraire   

To take one number away from another; deduct. To perform the arithmetic operation of → subtraction.

From L. subtractus, p.p. of subtrahere "to draw from beneath, take away, draw off," from → sub- "from under" + trahere "to pull, draw."

Zirkaršidan, literally "to draw beneath," from zir-, → sub-, + karšidan "to draw, pul, drag," variant of kašidan "to draw, protract, trail, drag, carry;" Av. karš- "to draw; to plow," karša- "furrow;" Proto-Iranian *kerš-/*xrah- "to draw, plow;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plow;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to move, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."
Kâhidan, → decrease.


Fr.: soustraction   

The operation of finding the difference between two numbers or quantities.

Verbal noun of → subtract.


Fr.: soustractif   

1) Constituting or involving → subtraction.
2) Math.: Indicating or requiring subtraction; having a → minus sign.

subtract; → -ive.

subtractive color
  رنگ ِ زیرکرششی   
rang-e zirkaršeši

Fr.: synthèse soustractive   

Color produced by mixing pigments rather than light. Mixing all of the subtractive colors together results in the color black. See also → additive color.

subtractive; → color.


Fr.: sous-type   

A special type being part of a more general type, e.g. subtype 2 among G type stars. → subclass.

sub-; → type.


Fr.: réussir   

1) To happen or terminate according to desire; turn out successfully; have the desired result.
2) To accomplish what is attempted or intended (

M.E. succeden, from O.Fr. succeder "to follow on" and directly from L. succedere "come after, follow after; go near to; come under; take the place of," also "go from under, mount up, ascend," hence "get on well, prosper, be victorious," from → sub- "next to, after" + cedere "to go, move" → process.

Kâmyâbidan, back formation from kâmyâbi, → success.

  کامیابی، کامیافت   
kâmyâbi (#), kâmyâft

Fr.: succès   

1) The favorable or prosperous termination of attempts or endeavors; the accomplishment of one's goals.
2) A performance or achievement that is marked by success, as by the attainment of honors (

From L. successus "an advance, a coming up; a good result, happy outcome," noun use of p.p. of succedere "come after," from suc-, → sub-, + ceder "to go, move," → process.

Kâmyâbi, literally "acquiring, obtaining, finding one's desire, wish," from kâm "desire, wish," → despite, + yâbi, from yâftan "to obtain, find," → interpolation.

kâmyâb (#)

Fr.: réussi, couronné de succès   

1) Achieving or having achieved success.
2) Resulting in or attended with success.

success + -ful a suffix meaning "full of, characterized by."

payâpey (#)

Fr.: successif   

Following in order or in uninterrupted sequence; e.g. → method of successive approximations.

M.E. from M.L. successivus, from successus, p.p. of succedere "come after, go near to," from → sub- "next to, after" + cedere "to go, move."

Peyâpey "successive," from pey "after; step," related to "foot" (Mid.Pers. pâd, pây, Av. pad-, Skt. pat, Gk. pos, gen. podos, L. pes, gen. pedis, P.Gmc. *fot, E. foot, Ger. Fuss, Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + -â- epenthetic vowel + pey, as explained.

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