An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 563
trigonometric function
  کریای ِ سه‌برسنجیک   
karyâ-ye sebarsanjik

Fr.: fonction circulaire, ~ trigonomtérique   

A function of an angle, one of six functions (sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant) that represent ratios of sides of right triangles. Also called circular function.

trigonometric; → function.

trigonometric parallax
  دیدگشت ِ سه‌برسنجی، ~ سه‌برسنجیک   
didgašt-e sebarsanji, ~ sebarsanjik

Fr.: parallaxe trigonométrique   

The → parallax of a nearby star (less than 300 → light-years) against the background of more distant stars resulting from the motion of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun.

trigonometric; → parallax.

trigonometry
  سه‌برسنجی   
sebarsanji

Fr.: trigonométrie   

The branch of mathematics dealing with the relations of the sides and angles of triangles; also the various algebraic functions of these relations.

From N.L. trigonometria, from Gk. trigonon "triangle" (from tri-, → three, + gonia "angle," cognate with Pers. zânu "knee") + metron, → -metry.

Sebarsanji, from sebar, → trianle, + -sanji, → -metry.

trilateration
  سه‌بربندی   
sebarbandi

Fr.: trilatération   

A geometrical method in land surveying for the determination of the relative position of points. In contrast to → triangulation, trilateration involves measuring the lengths of the three sides of touching or overlapping triangles and not their angles.

tri-; → lateral; → side; → -tion.

trinitro-
  تری‌نیترو-   
trinitro- (#)

Fr.: trinitro-   

In composition, having three nitro groups (NO2), especially replacing hydrogen. → trinitrotoluene.

From L. tri-, a combining form meaning → three + nitro- a combining form used in the names of chemical compounds in which the nitro group is present.

trinitrotoluene (TNT)
  تری‌نیتروتولویءن (TNT)   
trinitrotoluen (#)

Fr.: trinitrotoluène (TNT)   

A yellow, solid chemical compound, that does not occur naturally in the environment. More specifically, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (C6H2(NO2)3CH3), is commonly known as TNT. It is an explosive extensively used in munitions and for demolitions.

trinitro- + → toluene.

trinomial
  سه‌نامین   
senâmin

Fr.: 1) trinôme; 2) trinomial   

1) A → polynomial that consists of three terms.
2) Of, pertaining to, or consisting of a trinomial.

tri- + nomial, short for → nomnial.

triphthong
  سه‌واکه   
sévâké

Fr.: triphthongue   

A compound → vowel sound resulting from the succession of three simple vowels pronounced in a single syllable (as in power, hour, fire).

Tri-, → three; → diphthong.

triple
  سه‌تایی   
setâyi (#)

Fr.: triple   

Threefold; consisting of three parts. → triple alpha process; → triple conjunction; → triple point; → triple star.

M.E., from M.L. triplare "to triple," from L. triplus "threefold, triple," from tri-, → three, + -plus "-fold."

Setâyi, from setâ, from three + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part," Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part."

triple alpha process
  فراروند ِ آلفای ِ سه‌تایی   
farâravand-e âlfâ-ye setâyi

Fr.: réaction triple alpha   

A chain of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium nuclei (→ alpha particles) are transformed into → carbon. First two nuclei of helium collide, fuse, and form a nucleus of → beryllium: 4He + 4He ↔ 8Be, which is unstable and will decay back into two helium nuclei within a few 10-17 seconds. However, due to sufficiently high density and temperature in the stellar core, during a third collision between beryllium and helium, carbon is formed: 8Be + 4He → 12C + γ. The triple-alpha process is possible owing to the existence of the → Hoyle state. It is the main source of energy production in → red giants and → red supergiants in which the core temperature has reached at least 100 million K. Also called → Salpeter process.

triple; → alpha particle; → process.

triple conjunction
  هم‌ایستان ِ سه‌تایی   
hamistân-e setâyi

Fr.: conjonction triple   

A rare event involving a particularly intricate set of movements of two planets or a planet and a star where they meet each other three times in a short period either in opposition or at the time of inferior conjunction, if an inferior planet is involved. The visible movement of the planet or the planets in the sky is therefore normally prograde at the first conjunction, retrograde at the second conjunction and again prograde at the third conjunction.

triple; → conjunction.

triple point
  نقطه‌ی ِ سه‌گانه   
noqte-ye segâné (#)

Fr.: point triple   

The definite pressure and temperature at which all three phases of a substance coexist in → phase equilibrium. The triple point of water has a pressure of 4.58 mm of Hg and a temperature of 273.16 °K.

triple; → point.

Noqté, → triple; segâné, from three + -gâné suffix forming plural entities, from Mid.Pers. -gânag, -gâna.

triple star
  ستاره‌ی ِ سه‌تایی   
setâre-ye setâyi

Fr.: étoile triple   

A group of three stars visually or physically associated with each other. → triple system.

triple; → star

triple system
  راژمان ِ سه‌تایی   
râžmân-e setâyi

Fr.: système triple   

A system of three stars which are physically associated among them.

triple; → system

triplet
  سه‌تایه   
setâyé

Fr.: triplet   

A group or set of three of one kind.
Optics: A compound lens made up of three elements that may or may not be cemented.

From trip-, from → triple + -et, from → doublet.

Setâyé, from setâ, → triple, + -(y)é nuance suffix.

triplet state
  حالت ِ سه‌تایه   
hâlat-e setâyé

Fr.: état triplet   

The electronic state of an atom or molecule which has two unpaired electrons, and therefore whose total spin angular momentum is equal to 1.

triplet; → state.

triquetrum
  سه‌شاخ، ذات‌الشعبتین   
se-šâx, zâtošša'bateyn

Fr.: triquetrum   

An ancient astronomical instrument first described by Ptolemy in the Almagest, used in measuring the altitude of a celestial body. It consisted of three long arms of wood. The first is perpendicular to the horizon; the second is connected at the head of the first with an axis. The third had a graduated scale. An object was sighted along one arm and its zenith distance was read on the graduated scale. It performed the same function as the quadrant. Also called parallactic ruler, Ptolemy's rule.

L. neuter of triquetrus "three corned," from tri-three + -quetrus "corned."

Se-šâx, literally "three corned," from three + šâx "horn, branch" (Mid.Pers šâk; cf. Skt. sakha- "a branch, a limb;" Arm. cax; Lith. šaka; O.S. soxa; PIE *kakhâ "branch").

tritium
  تریتیوم   
tritiom (#)

Fr.: tritium   

Unstable heavy → isotope of → hydrogen whose nucleus contains one → proton and two → neutrons. Tritium occurs naturally due to → cosmic rays interacting with atmospheric gases. In the most important reaction for natural tritium production, a fast neutron interacts with atmospheric nitrogen: 14N + n → 12C + 3T. Its → half-life is about 12 years. Tritium was formed in an intermediate step in light element synthesis in → early Universe.

N.L., from Gk. trit(os) "third" (from → tri- + -tos adj. suffix) + N.L. → -ium.

Triton
  تریتون   
Triton (#)

Fr.: Triton   

The seventh and the largest of → Neptune's satellites. It has a diameter of 2,700 km and orbits its planet at a mean distance of 354,760 km every 5.877 days. Triton was discovered by William Lassell in 1846 scarcely a month after Neptune was discovered. Triton is colder than any other measured object in the solar system with a surface temperature of -235° C. It has an extremely thin atmosphere. Nitrogen ice particles might form thin clouds a few kilometers above the surface. The atmospheric pressure at Triton's surface is about 15 microbars, 0.000015 times the sea-level surface pressure on Earth. Triton is the only large satellite in the solar system to circle a planet in a → retrograde motion, that is in a direction opposite to the rotation of the planet.

In Gk. mythology, Triton is a god of the sea, the son of Poseidon (Neptune); usually portrayed as having the head and trunk of a man and the tail of a fish.

trivial
  زب   
zab

Fr.: trivial   

1) Of very little importance or value; insignificant; commonplace; ordinary.
2a) Math.: A solution of an equation in which the value of every variable of the equation is equal to zero. For example, x2 + 2y2 = x + 3y has a trivial solution x = 0, y = 0.
2b) Of a theorem or proof: simple, transparent, or immediately evident.
Any theorem once a proof has been obtained, no matter how difficult the theorem was to prove in the beginning.
2c) For any natural number, the number itself and 1 which are called trivial divisors.
3) Chemistry: → trivial name.

From M.L. trivialis "found everywhere, commonplace; known by every body," from trivium literally "crossroad, a place where three roads meet," also "the lower division of the seven liberal arts taught in medieval universities, i.e. grammar, rhetoric, and logic," from tri-, → three, + via "road," since it was common in Roman Empire for three roads to meet.

Zab "easy, unbought, gratis; straight," variant zap, related to sabok "light, not heavy; unsteady;" Proto-Iranian *θrap-/tarp- "to be unsteady;" cf. Kurd. terpin "to stumble;" Pashto drabəl "to shake, press down;" Skt. trepa- "hasty;" Gk. trepein "to turn;" L. trepidus "agitated, anxious;" PIE *trep- "to shake, tremble."

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