An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 555
Tempel-Tuttle
  تمپل-تاتل   
Tempel-Tuttle

Fr.: Tempel-Tuttle   

A → periodic comet that is the progenitor of the → Leonids meteor shower. It has a period of 33 years, a → perihelion of 0.982 → astronomical units, an → eccentricity of 0.904, and an → inclination of 162.7°. It was first discovered in 1865 though its past appearances have been traced back to 1366. Tempel-Tuttle is estimated to have a nucleus of radius 1.8 km and a mass of 1.2 × 1013 kg. Also designated 55P/Tempel-Tuttle.

Named after the German astronomer Ernst Wilhelm Tempel (1821-1889) and the American astronomer Horace Parnell Tuttle (1837-1923), who independently discovered the comet on December 19, 1865 and January 6, 1866 respectively.

temperature
  دما   
damâ (#)

Fr.: température   

A physical quantity characterizing the mean random motion of molecules in a physical body. In other words, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a system.

From L. temperatura "a tempering, moderation," from temperatus, p.p. of temperare "to moderate, to mix." Sense of "degree of heat or cold" first recorded 1670 (Boyle), from L. temperatura, used in this sense by Galileo.

Damâ, from dam "breath of an owen; bellows; smoke; air," also "moment, time," from Mid./Mod.Pers. damidan "to blow, breathe;" Av. dāδmainya- "blowing up;" cf. Skt. dahm- "to blow," dhámati "blows;" Gk. themeros "austere, dark-looking;" Lith. dumti "to blow;" PIE dhem-/dhemə- "to smoke, to blow."

temperature anisotropy
  ناهمسانگردی ِ دما، نا-ایزوگردی ِ ~   
nâhamsângardi-ye damâ (#), nâ-izogardi-ye ~

Fr.: anisotropie de température   

Cosmology: Minute temperature variations of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

temperature; → anisotropy.

temperature gradient
  زینه‌ی ِ دما   
zine-ye damâ (#)

Fr.: gradient de température   

A physical quantity that describes the rate of change of temperature with displacement in a given direction from a given reference point. Same as → thermal gradient.

temperature; → gradient.

temperature inversion
  واگردانی ِ دما   
vâgardâni-ye damâ

Fr.: inversion de température   

Meteo.: A reversal in the normal temperature decrease, the temperature rising with increased elevation in the atmosphere instead of falling. A layer in which temperature increases with altitude.

temperature; → inversion.

tempon
  تمپون   
tempon

Fr.: tempon   

An elementary unit of time defined as the duration which is necessary for light to travel a distance equal to the classical radius of an electron. Thus, one tempon (τ) is equal to (e2/mc2)(1/c)≅ 10-23 seconds.

From tamp, from L. tempus "time" + → -on.

temporal
  تامنی؛ ۱) زمانی؛ ۲) این-جهانی؛ ۳) تامنی؛ ۴) گیانی؛ ۵) زمانی   
tâmeni; 1) zamâni; 2) in-jahâni; 3) tâmeni; 4) giyâni; 5) zamâni

Fr.: temporaire   

1) Of or pertaining to time.
2) Pertaining to or concerned with the present life or this world; worldly.
3) Enduring for a time only; → temporary; transitory; → transient (opposed to eternal).
4) Secular, lay, or civil, as opposed to ecclesiastical.
5) Grammar: Of, pertaining to, or expressing time.

M.E., from O.Fr., from L. temporalis "of a time, but for a time, temporary," from tempus (genitive temporis) "time, season, proper time or season," of unknown origin.

Tâmeni, from tâmen, → time.

temporal hour
  ساعت ِ فصلی   
sâ'at-e fasli

Fr.: heure temporelle   

A unit of time used in the Roman and Ottoman empires that divided the day from sunrise to sunset into 12 equal numbers of hours, resulting in long summer hours and short winter hours.

M.E., from O.Fr. temporal, from L. temporalis "of time, temporary," from tempus (genitive temporis) "time, season, proper time or season," → time; → hour.

Sâ'athour; fasli, of or pertaining to faslseason.

temporal resolution
  واگشود ِ زمانی   
vâgošud-e zamâni

Fr.: résolution temporelle   

The measure of the ability of an observing system to clearly separate events in time. In other words, the shortest time interval that can be determined between two different events.

temporal hour; → resolution.

temporality
  تامنیگی   
tâmenigi

Fr.: temporalité   

Temporal character or nature.

temporal; → -ity.

temporary
  تامنوار   
tâmenvâr

Fr.: temporaire   

Lasting, existing, serving, or effective for a time only; not permanent.

From L. temporarius "according to circumstances, of seasonal character, lasting a short time," from tempus (genitive temporis) "time, season."

Tâmenvâr, from tâmen "time", → temporal, + -vâr suffix denoting suiting, befitting, resembling, in the manner of.

temporize
  تامنیدن   
tâmenidan

Fr.: temporiser   

To be indecisive or evasive to gain time or delay acting (Dictionary.com).

From M.Fr. temporiser "to pass one's time, wait one's time," from M.L. temporizare "to pass time," from L. tempus (genitive temporis), → temporal.

Tâmenidan from tâmen "time," → temporal, + -idan, → -ize.

ten
  ده   
dah (#)

Fr.: dix   

A cardinal number, nine plus one.

M.E. ten(e), tenn(e), O.E. ten(e), tien(e); from P.Gmc. *tekhan (cf. O.S. tehan, O.N. tiu, Dan. ti, Du. tien, O.H.G. zehan, Ger. zehn "ten"), cognate with Pers. dah, as below.

Dah, from Mid.Pers. dah "ten;" Av. dasa "ten;" cf. Skt. dáśa- "ten;" Gk. deka "ten;" L. decem "ten;" O.Ir. deich; Lith. dešimtis "ten;" PIE base *dekm.

tense
  تنو   
tanu

Fr.: tendu   

Stretched tight, as a cord, fiber, etc.; drawn taut; rigid.

From L. tensus, p.p. of tendere "to stretch," → tension.

Tanu "stretched, strained," from tan + -u suffix of excess. The first element tan, from tanidan "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to spin, stretch;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch"), Pers. târ "string," tân "thread," tur "fishing net, net, snare," and tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect) belong to this family; variants tanta "cobweb," tanadu, tafen, kartané, kârtané, kâtené, Pashtu tanistah "cobweb;" cf. Skt. tantu- "cobweb, thread, string").

tensile
  تنشی   
taneši (#)

Fr.: extensible   

Of or pertaining to → tension.

From M.L. tensilis "capable of being stretched," from L. tensus, p.p. of tendere "to stretch," → tension.

Taneši, related to taneš, → tension.

tensile force
  نیروی ِ تنشی   
niruy-e taneši

Fr.: force de traction   

The force tending to stretch (or produce tension in) an object

tensile; → force.

tension
  تنش   
taneš (#)

Fr.: tension   

General: The act of stretching or straining; the state of being stretched or strained.
Mechanics: The longitudinal deformation of an elastic body that results in its elongation.
Electricity: Voltage or potential; electromotive force.

M.E., from M.Fr. tension, from L. tensionem (nominative tensio) "a stretching," from tensus, p.p. of tendere "to stretch," cognate with Pers. taneš, as below.

Taneš, verbal noun from tanidan "to spin, twist, weave;" Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to spin, stretch;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch"), Pers. târ "string," tân "thread," tur "fishing net, net, snare," and tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect) belong to this family; variants tanta "cobweb," tanadu, tafen, kartané, kârtané, kâtené, Pashtu tanistah "cobweb;" cf. Skt. tantu- "cobweb, thread, string."

tensor
  تانسور، تانگر   
tânsor, tângar

Fr.: tenseur   

A system of numbers or functions where components obey a certain law of transformation when the variables undergo a linear transformation. A tensor may consist of a single number, in which case it is referred to as a tensor of order zero, or simply a → scalar. The tensor of order one represents a → vector. Similarly there will be tensors of order two, three, and so on.
See also:
absolute tensor, → calculus of tensors, → contravariant tensor, → covariant tensor, → Einstein tensor, → energy-momentum tensor, → metric tensor, → order of a tensor, → relative tensor, → Ricci tensor, → Riemann curvature tensor, → scalar-tensor theory, → skew-symmetric tensor, → symmetric tensor, → tensor analysis, → tensor contraction, → tensor density, → tensor field, → tensor perturbation, → tensor rank, → tensor-vector-scalar (TeVeS) theory, → weight of a tensor.

Agent noun of tense (v.) → tension.

tensor analysis
  آ نالس ِ تانسوری، ~ ِ تانگری   
ânâlas-e tânsori

Fr.: analyse tensorielle   

A method of calculation in higher mathematics based on the properties of tensors.

tensor; → analysis.

tensor contraction
  ترنگش ِ تانسور   
terengeš-e tânsor

Fr.: contraction de tenseur   

An operation of tensor algebra that is obtained by setting unlike indices equal and summing according to a summation convention.

contraction; → tensor.

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