An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 216
Venus rotation
  چرخش ِ ناهید   
carxeš-e nâhid

Fr.: rotation de Vénus   

The → sidereal rotation period of Venus, or its → sidereal day, is 243.025 Earth days (retrograde). The length of a → solar day on Venus (that is one entire day-night period) is 116.75 Earth days, that is significantly shorter than the sidereal day because of the retrograde rotation. One Venusian year is about 1.92 Venusian solar days.

Venus; → rotation.

Venus visibility
  پدیداری ِ ناهید   
padidâri-ye Nâhid

Fr.: visibilité de Vénus   

The conditions under which Venus can be seen from Earth as it travels in its orbit around the Sun. The → synodic period of Venus, that is the time Venus takes to be seen again from the Earth in the same position with respect to the Sun, is 583,92 days or just over 19 months. When Venus is between Earth and Sun (→ inferior conjunction) or on the far side of the sun (→ superior conjunction), it is invisible in the Sun's glare. Since its → greatest elongation from the Sun is never more than 47°, Venus appears only as "the morning star" and "the evening star." So at its greatest → western elongation Venus will rise about three hours ahead of the Sun and at its greatest → eastern elongation it will set about three hours after sunset. Its entire cycle is as follows:
Day 0: Superior conjunction, "full Venus."
Day 35: Venus appears in evening sky.
Day 221: Greatest → eastern elongation, "last quarter."
Day 271: Retrogression of Venus begins.
Day 286: Disappearance from the evening sky.
Day 292: Inferior conjunction, "new Venus."
Day 298: Venus appears in morning sky.
Day 313: Retrogression ends.
Day 362: Greatest → western elongation, "first quarter."
Day 549: Disappearance from morning sky.
Day 584: Superior conjunction, "full venus."
Therefore, Venus is visible as an evening star for 286 Earth days, as a morning star for 251 days, and is invisible for 47 days.

In addition, the orbital periods of Earth and Venus are closely correlated. After 8 Earth years or 13 Venus orbits, the two planets assume almost the same relative positions -- just 0.032 percent away from a perfect orbital resonance of 8:13. After this period of about 2920 Earth days, Venus appears just 1.5° (about 22 hours) in advance of its former position. Moreover, Venus exhibit → phases because its orbit lies within the Earth's. When Venus situated on the far side of the Sun from Earth, the planet is fully illuminated from our point of view. But its disk is small, just 10'' across, because it is nearly 300 million km away. When Venus is almost closest to Earth, on the near side of the Sun, it's about 60 million km away. Then it appears as a slender but much brighter crescent with a disk nearly 50'' across. See also → transit of Venus.

Venus; → visibility.


Fr.: verbe   

A member of a major category of words that refers to an action or a state. Verbs present a complex system of forms in Indo-European languages. The set of → inflectional forms of a verb is called a → conjugation. Verbs are usually distinguished for person and number along with tense and mood (if applicable).

M.E., from O.Fr. verbe from L. verbum "verb," originally "a word," from PIE root *wer- "to speak;" cf. Av. urvāta- "command;" Skt. vrata- "command, vow;" Gk. rhetor "public speaker," eirein "to speak, say;" Lith. vardas "name;" Goth. waurd, O.E. "word."

Karvâz, literally "action word," from kar- present stem of kardan "to do, make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make") + vâz "word," variants vâž, âvâz, vâj, vât, vâ, → voice.


Fr.: vergence   

Optics: A measure of the convergence or divergence of a pair of light rays, defined as the reciprocal of the distance between the point of focus and a reference plane.
Ophthalmology: The turning motion of the eyeballs toward or away from each other.

back formation from → convergence and → divergence, ultimately from L. vergere "to turn, bend, be inclined;" cognate with Pers. gardidan "to turn, to change," → version.

Gerâyi, from gerâyidan "to incline toward; to intend; to make for." Gerâ may be a variant of Mod.Pers. kil "bent, inclined" (k/g and l/r interchanges), from PIE base *klei- "to lean, incline," cognate with L. clinare "to bend" (E. declination, inclination, etc.), Gk. klinein "to cause to slope, slant, incline," Skt. sri- "to lean," O.Pers. θray-, Av. sray- "to lean," P.Gmc. *khlinen (Ger. lehnen, E. lean).

verifiability principle
  پروز ِ راست-جُست-پذیری   
parvaz-e râst-jost-paziri

Fr.: principe de vérifiabilité   

In logical positivism philosophy, the claim that a statement is literally meaningful (it expresses a proposition) if and only if it either actually has been verified or could at least in principle be verified.

Quality noun from → verifiable; → principle.


Fr.: vérifiable   

That can be verified. → verify; → verification; → verifiability principle.

verify; → -able.


Fr.: vérification   

The act of verifying. The state of being verified.
The process of research and examination required to establish correctness, authenticity, or validity.

Verbal noun of → verify.

  راست-جُستن، راست-جست کردن   
râst-jostan, râst-jost kardan

Fr.: vérifier   

To ascertain the truth or correctness of, as by examination, research, or comparison.

M.E. verifien, from M.Fr. verifier, from M.L. verificare "to make true," from L. verus "true;" → -fy.

Râst-jostan, literally "to seek the truth, to seek the right," from râst "right, true; just, upright, straight" (Mid.Pers. râst "true, straight, direct;" Soghdian rəšt "right;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" cf. Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule") + jostan/juyidan "to seek, strive for" (Proto-Iranian *iud- "to struggle for something, to fight;" Av. yūδ- "to fight, struggle;" Mod.Pers. justan, juy- "to search, seek, ask for;" cf. Mid.Pers. vijuyihitan "to search, seek").

bahâri (#)

Fr.: vernal   

Of or pertaining to spring. → vernal equinox.

From L. vernalis "of the spring," from vernus "of spring," from uēr "spring," cognate with Pers. bahâr, as below.

Bahâri of or pertaining to bahâr "spring;" Mid.Pers. wahâr "spring;" O.Pers. vāhara- "spring time," θūra-vāhara- "name of a spring month;" Av. vaηhar "spring;" cf. Skt. vasara- "relating or appearing in the morning;" Gk. ear "spring;" L. uēr "spring," vernus "of spring;" O.N. vār "spring;" Lith. vasara "summer;" O.C.S. vesna "spring."

vernal equinox
  هموگان ِ بهاری   
hamugân-e bahâri

Fr.: équinoxe vernal   

The point of intersection between the ecliptic and the celestial equator at which the Sun passes from south to north of the celestial equator during its apparent annual motion. The instant of this event. It occurs on March 20, 21 or rarely 19. At the vernal equinox, as with the → autumnal equinox, night and day are equal in length world over. Several thousands years ago the vernal equinox was in Aries, but because of precession it has now slid west into Pisces. Right ascension and celestial longitude are measured from the vernal equinox. Also known as spring equinox. → First Point of Aries.

vernal; → equinox.

vernal-equinox year
  سال ِ هموگان ِ بهاری   
sâl-e hamugân-e bahâri

Fr.: année d'équinoxe vernal, année vernale   

The time interval between two successive passages of the Sun, when the true longitude of the Sun is considered. In other words, the interval during which the Sun's true longitude increases by 360 degrees. Its mean length for the epoch J2000.0 is 365.24236460 real solar days (approximately 365.2424 days). The vernal-equinox year, on which the Iranian calender is based, should not be confused with → tropical year. See also: A concise review of the Iranian calendar. → Iranian calendar

vernal; → equinox; → year.

vernier (#)

Fr.: vernier   

A small movable scale running parallel to the main graduated scale in certain measuring instruments, such as the → sextant, used to obtain a fractional reading of one of the divisions on the main scale. Also known as Vernier scale.

After the French mathematician Pierre Vernier (1580-1637), who invented the scale in 1631.


Fr.: version   

A particular form or variant of something.
An account of something, given from a specific point of view.

M.E., from M.Fr. version, from M.L. versionem (nominative versio) "a turning," from p.p. stem of L. vertere "to turn;" cognate with Pers. gardidan "to change," as below.

Gardâk, present stem of gardidan "to change, to turn" (Mid.Pers. vartitan "to change, to turn;" Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend") + -âk noun suffix.


Fr.: vertex, sommet   

Plural form: vertices.
1) Astro.: A point in the → celestial sphere toward which or from which the common motion of a group of stars is directed.
2) Math.: The → point where two → sides of a → plane figure or an → angle  → intersect.
3) In → graph theory, any of the points of which graphs are formed. Same as → node.

From L. vertex "highest point," literally "the turning point," originally "whirlpool," from vertere "to turn," cognate with Pers. vartidan, gardidan, → version.

Târak, variant târ "top, vertex, head, the middle of the head;" cf. Sogd. târ "summit, forehead;" Yaghnobi tôr(k) "the back of the head;" Yazghulami tur "summit, head;" Proto-Ir. *starH- "to spread," → expand; PIE *ster- "spread, extend."

hajin (#)

Fr.: vertical   

1) The apparent → direction of → gravity at the point of observation.
2) Being in a position or direction → perpendicular to the → plane of the → horizon. See also → normal.

Vertical, literally "of or at the vertex, directly overhead," from M.Fr. vertical, from L.L. verticalis "overhead," from L. vertex (genitive verticis) "highest point"

Hajin, from haj, variant hac "anything held vertical, erected in the manner of a spear" (Dehxodâ), may be from Proto-Ir. *hac- "to follow;" cf. Av. (+ *ā-) hac- "to stick to;" Mid.Pers. hâz- "to lead, guide;" → associate.

vertical circle
  پرهون ِ هجین، دایره‌ی ِ ~   
parhun-e hajin, dâyere-ye ~

Fr.: cercle vertical   

The greater circle on the celestial sphere which passes through → zenith, → nadir, and the star and whose plane is perpendicular to the plane of horizon. Same as → azimuth circle.

vertical; → circle.

vertical scaling
  مرپلش ِ هجین   
marpeleš-e hajin


In computer science, a scaling in which the processing power of the same node/system is increased by increasing/decreasing its resources (CPU, memory, etc.). See also → horizontal scaling.

vertical; → scaling.


Fr.: sommets, vertex   

Plural of → vertex.


besyâr (#)

Fr.: très   

In a high degree. → Very Large Telescope (VLT); → very massive star; → very high frequencies (VHF).

M.E.; O.Fr verai "true;" L. verax (genitive veracis) "truthful," from verus "true."

Besyâr, from bas "many, much" (Mid.Pers. vas "many, much;" O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish").

very high frequencies (VHF)
  بسامدهای ِ بسیار بالا   
basâmadhâ-ye besyâr bâlâ

Fr.: très hautes fréquences   

Radio frequencies in the range 30 to 300 mega Hz.

very; → high; → frequency.

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