An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 222
vibrational transition
  گذرش ِ شیوشی   
gozareš-e šiveši

Fr.: transition vibrationnelle   

A transition between two → quantized  → levels of a → molecule that have different vibrational energies.

vibrational; → transition.

vibrational-rotational transition
  گذرش ِ چرخشی-شیوشی   
gozareš-e carxeši-šiveši

Fr.: transition vibrationnelle-rotationnelle   

A slight change in the → energy level of a → molecule due to → vibrational transition and/or → rotational transition.

vibrational; → rotational; → transition.

victim
  لیشه   
lišé

Fr.: victime   

A person or thing that suffers harm or death, from another or from some adverse act or circumstance.

M.Fr. victime, from L. victima "sacrificial animal."

Lišé, from Mid.Pers. lyš- / rêš- "to wound, hurt;" Pers. riš, rêš "wound;" Av. raēš- "to get hurt, suffer damage;" cf. Skt. reṣ "to get harmed."

Victorian period
  دوره‌ی ِ ویکتوریایی   
dowre-ye Viktoriyâ-yi

Fr.: période victorienne   

A series of 532 years, arising from the cycles of the Sun and Moon multiplied into one another. It was used by the Western churches for many years, in computing the time of Easter, till the → Gregorian calendar was established.

Named after Victorius (a French clergyman), who invented the period about the middle of the 5th century.

video
  ۱) دیداره؛ ۲) دیداری   
1) didâré; 2) didâri

Fr.: vidéo   

1) (n.) The visual part of a television broadcast.
Something that has been recorded on videotape, especially a movie or music performance.
2) (adj.) Of or pertaining to the electronic apparatus for producing the television picture.

From L. video "I see," from viderevision.

Didâré, didâri, from didâr "vision, sight," verbal noun from didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen").

Vietnamese calendar
  گاهشمار ِ ویتنامی   
gâhšomâr-e Vietnâmi

Fr.: calendrier vietnamien   

A → lunisolar calendar used now in Vietnam mainly for determining seasonal holidays and cultural events. It is in fact the → Chinese calendar computed for Hanoi. It has 12 months of 29 or 30 days each (→ synodic month) and the year totals 355 days. The → lunar year is therefore 11 days shorter than its solar counterpart. To keep up with the solar pace, every 19 years seven extra months are added to the calendar. In practice, approximately every third year an → embolismic month is included. The New Year, called Tet, begins at the second → new moon after the → winter solstice. The Vietnamese calendar has some minor differences with the Chinese calendar. For example, it uses the cat and buffalo instead of the Chinese rabbit and cow respectively in the → zodiac.

From Vietnam "Viets of the South," from Viet the people's name + nam "south;" → lunar; → calendar.

view
  دید   
did (#)

Fr.:   

1) An instance of seeing or beholding; visual inspection.
2) Sight; vision (Dictionary.com).

M.E. v(i)ewe, from M.Fr. veue "sight," from V.L. *viduta, from *vidutus, from L. visus, p.p. of videre "to see," → vision.

Did, → vision.

viewing angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ دید   
zâviye-ye did (#)

Fr.: angle de visée   

The maximum angle at which a display, such as a TV screen, can be viewed with acceptable visual performance.

Viewing, from view, M.E. v(i)ewe (n.); M.Fr. veue "sight," feminine p.p. of veoir "to see," from L. videre "to see," → vision; → angle.

Zâviyé, → angle; didvision.

vigesimal
  بیستگانی   
bistgâni (#)

Fr.: vicésimal   

The numeral system based on → twenty.

From L. vigesimus, variant of vicesimus, vicensimus "twentieth," from vigniti "twenty" + → -al.

vignetting
  لبه‌پوش   
labe-puš

Fr.: vignettage, dégradé   

The gradual reduction in energy through an optical system as the off-axis angle increases, resulting from limitations of the clear apertures of elements within the system.

From vignette "an unbordered picture, often a portrait, that shades off into the surrounding color at the edges;" "softening the edges of a picture in vignette style;" from Fr. vignette, O.Fr., diminutive of vigne "vineyard;" from L. vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine."

Labe-puš, literally "limb covering," from labé "limb," from lab "lip;" (Mid.Pers. lap; cf. L. labium; O.E. lippa; E. lip; Ger. Lefze) + puš present stem of pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").

village
  ده، دهکده   
deh, dehkadé

Fr.: village   

A small group of dwellings in a rural area, usually ranking in size between a hamlet and a town.

M.E. village, from O.Fr. village, from L. villaticus, ultimately from L. villa "country house," related to vicus "village, group of houses," vecinus "neighbor;" cf. Mid.Pers. wis "village," Manichean Mid.Pers. wys "to repose;" Khotanese bäsā "house;" O.Pers. viθ- "settlement;" Av. vis- "to enter;" cf. Skt. vis- "house;" Albanian vis- "place;" Gothic weihs "village;" E. suffix wich, -wick (as in Norwich and Brunswick); Iranian dialects/languages Xonsâri hos "house, home;" Lori, Laki hoš, höš, hovš "house, home;" Baluci ges "house, home;" Kermânshahi, Ilâmi, Lori huz "clan, family, tribe;" Parachi γos, γus "house, home;" Wakhi wiš- / wišt- "to set [of sun];" Yaghnavi wes-, ves- "to go down;" PIE *ueik- "to settle (down)."

Deh, dehkadé, from Mid.Pers. dêh "village, settlement, country;" loaned into Armenian deh "district;" O.Pers./Av. dahyu- "country."

Vindemiatrix
  انگورچین   
Angurcin

Fr.: Vindemiatrix   

A star located in the → Virgo constellation, also called ε Virginis. It is a yellow → giant of apparent magnitude 2.83 and → spectral type G8 III. Vindemiatrix lies about 102 → light-years from Earth, has a luminosity 83 times the → solar luminosity, and a → surface temperature about 5,000 K.

L. Vindemiatrix "grape-harvestress," feminine of vindemiator "grape-hervester," translation of Gk. names Protrugeter, Protrugetes, and Trugeter used by Ptolemy, Plutarch, and other Gk. authors. The first of these words denoted "Fruit-plucking Herald." In Gk. trugos is the process of collecting the grapes. It has been argued that the first visibility of the star in morning light was the time of gathering the grapes. The original Gk. name was translated in Ar. as al-Mutaqaddim lil-Qaţāf (المتقدم للقطاف) "Harvest Precursor," and later to Almuredin maybe with the same meaning, but the etymology is not clear.

Angurcin "grape harvester," from angur "grape" (related to quré "unripe grape," angordé "a single grape, a berry;" cf. Skt. ankurá- "buds, sprout, shoot, blossom, swelling") + cin present stem of cidan "to gather, collect," related to gozidan "to choose, select" (Mid.Pers. cyn- "to gather, collect;" Av. ci- "to heap up, gather"

vine
  مو، تاک، رز   
mow (#), tâk (#), raz (#)

Fr.: vigne   

Any of various plants, especially the grapevine, having long flexible stems that creep along the ground or climb by clinging to a support by means of tendrils, leafstalks, etc (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. vigne "vine, vinyard," from L. vinea "vine, vineyard," from vinum "wine," from PIE *win-o- "wine."

Mow, tâk, raz "vine," Persian words of unknown origin.

violate
  اناهیدن   
enâhidan

Fr.: violer   

To break, infringe, or transgress (a law, rule, agreement, promise, instructions, etc.). → parity violation.

M.E., from L. violatus p.p. of violare "to treat with violence, violate," from violentus "violent, " from vis "force, violence."

Enâhidan infinitive from enâh, from Av. aēnah- "violence, mischief, crime, outrage," from aēn- "to do violence to, to violate, to injure, to offend;" cf. Skt. énas- "offence, mischief, crime, sin;" Gk. ainos "terrible."

violation
  اناه، اناهش   
enâh, enâheš

Fr.: violation   

The act of violating. The state of being violated. → parity violation

Verbal noun from → violate.

violent
  سورا   
surâ

Fr.: violent   

Intense in force, effect; severe; extreme.
See also: → optically violent variable (OVV) quasar, → violent galaxy, → violent interstellar environment, → violent relaxation, → violent star formation.

M.E., from O.fr. violent, from L. violentus "vehement, forcible."

Surâ, from Av. sūra- "strong, powerful, mighty;" cf. Skt. śūra- "strong, powerful, valiant."

violent galaxy
  کهکشان ِ سورا   
kahkašân-e surâ

Fr.: galaxie violente   

A type of galaxy that releases a tremendous amount of energy, on the average 1058 ergs, compared with a supernova release of 1049 ergs. Violent galaxies include quasars and exploding galaxies. About 1 percent of the galaxies are classified as violent. The nearest violent galaxy is Cen A.

violent; → galaxy.

violent interstellar environment
  پرگیر ِ اندر-اختری ِ سورا   
pargir-e andar-axtari-ye surâ

Fr.: environnement interstellaire violent   

A description of the interstellar medium justified by the presence of supersonic shock waves, massive star winds, turbulence, supernova explosions, etc.

violent; → interstellar; → environment.

violent relaxation
  واهلش ِ سورا   
vâhaleš-e surâ

Fr.: relaxation violente   

A process in which a dynamical system made up of many objects (star cluster, galaxy cluster) rapidly relaxes from a chaotic initial state to a quasi-equilibrium.

violent; → relaxation.

violent star formation
  دیسش ِ سورای ِ ستارگان   
diseše surâ-ye setâregân

Fr.: formation violente d'étoiles   

The concept of star formation pertaining to a variety of systems (OB associations, giant H II regions, H II galaxies, massive star clusters, etc.) that are believed to have formed large numbers of stars in a very short time.

violent; → star formation.

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