formal logic گوییک ِ دیسهای، ~ دیسهور guyik-e diseyi, ~ disevar
*Fr.: logique formelle*
The traditional or → *classical logic* in which
the → *validity* or → *invalidity*
of a conclusion is deduced from two or more
statements (→ *premise*s). Based on
Aristotle's (384-322 BC) theory of
→ *syllogism*, systematized in his book "Organon,"
its focus is not on what is stated (the content) but on the structure
(form) of the → *argument*
and the validity of the inference drawn from
the premises of the argument; if the premises are true then the
logical consequence must also be true. Formal logic is
→ *bivalent*, that is it
recognizes only two → *truth value*s:
→ *true* and → *false*.
The basic principles of formal logic are: 1)
→ *principle of identity*,
2) → *principle of excluded middle*, and
3) → *principle of non-contradiction*.
See also → *symbolic logic*,
→ *fuzzy logic*. → *formal*; → *logic*. |