1) Chemistry: The remainder of an atom after the valence electrons have
Kernel, from M.E. kirnel, from O.E. cyrnel, from P.Gmc. *kurnilo- (cf. M.H.G. kornel, M.Du. cornel), from *kernan- (root of corn "seed, grain"), akin to L. granium, + -el, diminutive suffix, variant of → -al.
Astel, from asté "kernel, fruit stone," variants hasté, ostoxân "bone," from Mid.Pers. astak "fruit stone, bone," ast "bone;" Av. ast- "bone;" cf. Skt. asthi- "bone;" Gk. osteon; L. os; Hittite hashtai-; PIE base *os- + Pers. diminutive suffix -el→ -al.