A quantity used in studies of → emission nebulae to convert
the → ionic abundance of a given
chemical element to its total
→ elemental abundance.
The elemental abundance of an element relative to hydrogen is
given by the sum of abundances of all its ions. In practice,
not all the ionization stages are observed.
One must therefore correct for unobserved stages
using ICFs. A common way to do this was to rely on
→ ionization potential considerations. However,
→ photoionization models show that such simple relations do
not necessarily hold. Hence, ICFs based on grids of photoionization models are more reliable.
Nevertheless here also care should be taken for several reasons:
the atomic physics is not well known yet, the ionization structure of a nebula
depends on the spectral energy distribution of the stellar radiation field,
which differs from one model to another, and the density structure of real nebulae
is more complicated than that of idealized models
(see, e.g., Stasińska, 2002, astro-ph/0207500, and references therein).

The constant of proportionality relating the separations of lines of
successive pairs of adjacent components of the levels of a spectral
multiplet to the larger of the two J-values for the respective
pairs. The interval between two successive components J and J + 1 is
proportional to J + 1.

After Alfred Landé (1888-1976), a German-American physicist, known for his contributions
to quantum theory; → facteur.

liquefaction

آوش

âveš

Fr.: liquéfaction

1) The act or process of liquefying or making liquid.
2) The state of being liquefied.

In → special relativity, an important parameter which appears
in several equations, including → time dilation,
→ length contraction, and
→ relativistic mass. It is defined as
γ = 1 / [1 - (v/c)^{2}]^{1/2} = dt/dτ,
where v is the velocity as observed in the reference frame where time t
is measured, τ is the proper time, and c the
→ velocity of light. Same as Lorentz γ factor.

The state of being rarefied, less dense.
An instantaneous reduction in density of a gas resulting from passage a sound wave;
opposite of → compression.

M.E. rarefien, from M.Fr. rarefier, from L. rarefacere
"make rare," from rarus "loose, wide apart, thin, infrequent."

Verbal noun from âlar present stem of âlaridan→ rarefy + -š, a suffix.

rarefaction wave

موج ِ آلرش

mowj-e âlareš

Fr.: onde de raréfaction

A pressure wave in a fluid generated by rarefaction. It travels in the opposite
direction to that of a shock wave in the medium.

Math.:
A number which scales, or multiplies, some quantity. In the equation
y = Cx, C is the scale factor for x. C is also the
coefficient of x, and may be called the constant of proportionality of
y to x. Geometry:
The ratio of any two corresponding lengths in two similar geometric
figures. The ratio of areas of two similar figures is the square
of the scale factor.

An agreement by competent observers of a series of observations of the same phenomena.
From time to time scientific facts are revised by additional data
(G. Smooth, Lawrence Berkeley Lab website).

For the translational motion of a spherical body moving in a
→ viscous fluid, the proportionality
factor between the uniform flow velocity far from the sphere and
the drag force, provided no-slip boundary condition and small
→ Reynolds numbers:
f = 6πηR, where
η is the Reynolds number and R radius of the sphere.