An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 96 Search : hot
Schottky barrier
  ورغه‌ی ِ شوتکی   
varqe-ye Schottky

Fr.: barrière de Schottky   

A junction between a metal and a semiconductor, which exhibits rectifying characteristics. A Schottky barrier has a very fast switching action and low forward voltage drop of about 0.3 volts, compared with 0.6 volts in silicon diodes, which use adjacent p-type and n-type semiconductors.

Named after Walter Hans Schottky (1886-1976), German physicist, who described the phenomenon; → barrier.

Schottky defect
  آک ِ شوتکی   
âk-e Schottky

Fr.: défaut de Schottky   

An unoccupied position in a crystal lattice which forms when oppositely charged ions leave their lattice sites, creating vacancies.

Named after Walter Hans Schottky (1886-1976), German physicist; → defect.

Schottky diode
  دیود ِ شوتکی   
diod-e Schottky (#)

Fr.: diode Schottky   

A → semiconductor diode containing a → Schottky barrier. Such a diode has a low forward voltage drop and very fast switching characteristics. Also called Schottky barrier diode and hot electron diode.

Schottky barrier; → diode.

Schottky noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ شوتکی   
nufe-ye Schottky

Fr.: bruit de Schottky   

Excess voltage generated by random fluctuations in the emission of electrons from a hot cathode, causing a hissing or sputtering sound (shot noise) in an audio amplifier and causing snow on a television screen. Same as → shot effect, → shot noise.

Named after Walter Hans Schottky (1886-1976), German physicist; → noise.

shot effect
  نوفه‌ی ِ شاتکی   
nufe-ye Schottky

Fr.: effet Schottky   

Same as → Schottky noise; → shot noise.

Translation of Ger. Schroteffekt, from Schrot "small shot, buckshot" + Effekt; → effect.

shot noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ شاتکی   
nufe-ye Schottky

Fr.: bruit de grenaille   

Same as → Schottky noise and → shot effect.

shot effect.

Schottky noise.

slingshot effect
  اُسکر ِ فلاخن   
oskar-e falâxan

Fr.: effet de fronde gravitationnelle, gravidéviation   

An important astronautical technique whereby a spacecraft takes up a tiny fraction of the gravitational energy of a planet it is flying by, allowing it to change trajectory and speed. Also known as → gravitational slingshot or → gravitational assist.

Slingshot, from sling, from M.E. slyngen, from O.N. slyngva "to sling, fling" + shot, from M.E., from O.E. sc(e)ot, (ge)sceot; cf. Ger. Schoss, Geschoss; → effect.

Oskar, → effect; falâxan "sling;" from Av. fradaxšana- "sling," fradaxšanya- "sling, sling-stone;"

solar photospheric abundance
  فراوانی ِ شیدسپهری ِ خورشیدی   
farâvâni-ye šidsepehri-ye xoršidi

Fr.: abondance photosphérique solaire   

The abundance of a → chemical element as determined from the observation of solar → spectral lines. The solar chemical composition is an important ingredient in our understanding of the formation, structure and evolution of both the Sun and our solar system. Furthermore, it is an essential reference standard against which the elemental contents of other astronomical objects are compared (Asplund et al. 2009, arXiv:0909.0948). The photospheric abundances relative to hydrogen are not representative of the → protosun, or global → solar system abundances. This is because heavy-element fractionation in the Sun has altered photospheric abundances (Lodders 2003, ApJ 591, 1220).

solar; → photospheric; → abundance.


Fr.: spectrophotomètre   

An instrument designed to measure the intensity of a particular spectral line or a series of spectral lines.

spectro-; → photometer.


Fr.: spectrophotométrie   

Of or relating to → spectrophotometry.

spectrum; → photometry.


Fr.: spectrophotométrie   

In astronomy, measurement of the absolute fluxes of the components of different frequencies in the spectrum of a light source.

spectrum; → photometry.

stellar photometry
  نورسنجی ِ ستاره‌ای   
nursanji-ye setâre-yi

Fr.: photométrie stellaire   

The precise measurement of a star's brightness, usually through several specific wavelength bands.

stellar; → photometry.

two-photon emission
  گسیل ِ دو-فوتونی   
gosil-e do-fotoni

Fr.: émission à deux photons   

The simultaneous emission of two photons whose sum of energies is equal to that of a single electron transition. The energy of each individual photon of the pair is not fixed, so that the spectrum of two-photon emission is continuous from the wavelength of that transition to infinity. In practice, there is a peak in wavelength distribution of the emitted photons. Two-photon emission is studied atomic physics with application in astrophysics, as it contributes to the continuum radiation from → planetary nebulae. It was recently observed in condensed matter and specifically in → semiconductors.

two; → photon; → emission.

Walraven photometry
  شیدسنجی ِ والراون   
šidsanji-ye Walraven

Fr.: photométrie de Walraven   

A photometric system with five wavelength ranges that does not use filters. Instead it uses prisms and lenses (spectroscopy) to select the bands simultaneously. The wavelengths and the bandwidths are: W, 3250 and 140 Å; U, 3630 and 240 Å; L, 3840 and 230 Å; B, 4320 and 450 Å; and V, 5470 and 720 Å. The Walraven photometer was unique in design and remained literally unique as copies were never built. In addition, during its whole life the photometer was mounted permanently on the same telescope that had been built specifically for this instrument, the 91 cm Lightcollector' reflector, which started in 1958 at the Leiden Southern Station in Broederstroom, South-Africa. After 20 years in South-Africa the telescope and photometer were moved to the European Southern Observatory La Silla observatory in Chile. The photometric observations were resumed in March 1979 and continued for another 12 years until the decommissioning of the photometer in 1991.

After the inventors, the Dutch astronomer Theodore Walraven (1916-) and his wife Johanna Helena Walraven, née Terlinden (1920-89); → photometry.

warm-hot intergalactic medium
  مدیم ِ اندر-کهکشانی ِ گرم-داغ   
madim-e andar-kahkašâni garm-dâq

Fr.: milieu intergalactique chaud   

The space containing a cluster of galaxies filled with a tenuous gas of temperature 105 to 107 K and density 10-6 to 10-4 cm-3. WHIM has been continuously shock-heated during the process of structure formation. It is so highly ionized that it can only absorb or emit far-ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons, primarily at spectral lines of highly ionized C, O, Ne, and Fe. WHIM is thought to be the main reservoir of missing baryons.

warm; → hot; → intergalactic medium.

wedge photometer
  نورسنج ِ گُوه‌ای   
nursanj-e gove-yi

Fr.: photomètre à coin   

A photometer in which an → absorbing wedge is inserted in the brighter of two beams until the flux densities of the two light sources are equal.

wedge; → photometer.

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