model-e Debye (#)
Fr.: modèle de Debye
An extension of the → Einstein model accounting for → specific heats, based on the concept of → elastic waves in → crystals. In this model specific heat is given by: CV = 9R[(4/x2)∫ y2/(ey - 1)dy - x/(ex - 1)], integrating from 0 to x, where R is the → gas constant, k is → Boltzmann's constant, x = hνmax/k, and y = hν/k. The parameter TD = hνmax/k is the characteristic → Debye temperature of the crystal. At low temperatures the specific heat prediction by this model is in good agreement with observations (→ Debye law), in contrast to Einstein's model.
→ debye; → temperature.
dirty iceball model
model-e golule-ye yax
Fr.: modèle de la boule de glace sale
A model for a → cometary nucleus proposed by Fred Whipple (1950-51), according to which the nucleus is a solid body (a few kilometers across) made up of various → ices (→ frozen water, → methane, → ammonia, → carbon dioxide, and → hydrogen cyanide) in which → dust is embedded. Dust particles are liberated when the ices vaporize as the → comet approaches the → Sun, and they get blown away by → solar radiation pressure, often forming impressive, gently curved → dust tails.
disk instability model (DIM)
model-e nâpâydâri-ye gerdé, ~ ~ disk
Fr.: modèle d'instabilité de disque
A model describing → dwarf novae and → Soft X-ray Transient (SXT)s. Accordingly, these objects are triggered by an → accretion disk instability due to an abrupt change in opacities (→ opacity) at → temperatures at which hydrogen is partially ionized. All versions of the DIM have this ingredient. They differ in assumptions about → viscosity, and about what happens at the inner and outer disk radii. Basically, during → quiescence, material accumulates in the accretion disk until a critical point is reached. The disk then becomes unstable and is dumped onto the → compact object, releasing a burst of → X-rays. However, the greater duration of SXT bursts (months) and the time interval between bursts (decades) cannot be accounted for by the standard disk instability model used for dwarf novae, and additional factors such as X-ray illumination and irradiation of the accretion disk are required for the model to match the observed properties of SXTs (J-P Lasota and J-M Hameury, 1995).
→ disk; → instability; → model.
Fr.: modèle de poussière
A model of → dust grains conceived to describe the observed → interstellar extinction properties. It is characterized by the abundance of the different → chemical elements locked up in the dust, and by the → composition, → morphology, and → size distribution of its individual grains. For example, → MRN dust model.
Fr.: modèle dynamo
A theory for the generation of a star's or planet's magnetic field by the circulation of conducting fluids inside it. → solar dynamo.
Fr.: modèle d'Einstein
A model for the → specific heat of solids in which the specific heat is due to the vibrations of the atoms of the solids. The vibration energy is → quantized and the atoms have a single frequency, ν. Put forward in 1907 by Einstein, this model was the first application of → quantum theory to the solid state physics. The expression for the specific heat is given by: CV = 3Rx2ex/(ex -1)2, where R is the → gas constant, x = TE/T, TE = hν/k, h is → Planck's constant, and k is → Boltzmann's constant. TE is called the → Einstein temperature. This model could explain the temperature behavior of specific heat but not very satisfactorily at low temperatures. It has therefore been superseded by the → Debye model. See also → Dulong-Petit law.
Albert Einstein in 1907; → model.
model-e fargašt (#)
Fr.: modèle d'évolution
A model, based on theoretical calculations, which predicts the behavior of an astronomical entity (stars, galaxies, Universe) over time.
→ evolutionary; → model.
forward seismic modeling
modelsâzi-ye larze-yi-ye piš-su
1) Geology: The process whereby a geologic section (subsurface model
of one-, two-, or three dimensions) is transformed into a synthetic seismogram
(synthetic seismic record).
Fr.: modèle d'inflation
A class of → Big Bang models of the Universe that include a finite period of accelerated expansion in their early histories. Such an event would have released enormous energy, stored until then in the vacuum of space-time. The horizon of the Universe expanded, temporarily, much faster than the speed of light. → inflaton field.
lambda cold dark matter model
Fr.: modèle ΛCDM
The → standard model of → Big Bang that incorporates both → dark matter and → dark energy. See also → cold dark matter (CDM).
→ lambda, → cosmological constant; → cold; → dark; → matter; → model.
A stellar atmosphere model which includes metals or uses methods to reproduce their effects, → line blanketing.
Fr.: modèle magnétocentrifuge
A → magnetohydrodynamic model devised to account for the → bipolar jets and → outflows observed around → protostars. Basically, a → poloidal magnetic field is frozen into a rotating → accretion disk. If the angle between the magnetic field lines threading the disk and the rotation axis of the disk is larger than 30°, the plasma can be accelerated out of the accretion disk along the field lines. The field lines rotate at a constant → angular velocity, and as the gas moves outward along the field lines, it is accelerated by an increasing → centrifugal force (magnetocentrifugal acceleration). At some point, when the rotation velocity is about the same as the → Alfven velocity in the gas, the field lines get increasingly wound up by the inertia of the attached gas and a strong → toroidal magnetic field component is generated. The toroidal component is the main agent in collimating the flow into a direction along the → open magnetic field lines. The earliest version of the model was proposed by Blandford & Payne (1982, MNRAS 199, 883). It has two main versions: → X-wind and → disk wind models. See also → magnetorotational instability.
→ magneto-; → centrifugal; → model.
Milne cosmological model
model-e keyhânšenâxti-ye Milne (#)
Fr.: modèle cosmologique de Milne
Same as → Milne Universe.
→ Milne Universe; → cosmological; → model.
1) (n.) model, tarzâl; 2) (v.) model sâxtan, tarzâlidan
Fr.: 1) modèle; 2) modéliser
1a) A mathematical representation of a process, system, or object
developed to understand its behavior or to make predictions. The
representation always involves certain simplifications and
assumptions. See also → theory,
M.Fr. modelle (Fr. modèle), from It. modello "a model, mold," from V.L. *modellus, from L. modulus "measure, standard," from modus "manner, measure" (cf. Av. mad-, → mode), PIE *med- + -ulus, → -ula.
1) Model, from Fr. modèle.
Tarzâl, from tarz, → mode + -âl,
vâbastegi bé model, ~ ~ tarzâl
Fr.: dépendance du modèle
In a theoretical analysis, the solution that does not correctly treat the intervening parameters, or neglects some crucial factors.
The simulation of a process, concept, or operation of a system often implemented by a computer program and making use of a mathematical treatment.
Verbal noun of → model
MRN dust model
Fr.: modèle MRN
A model concerned with the distribution in size of → interstellar grains to account for observations of → interstellar extinction from 0.11 μm to 1.0 μm. The → distribution has the form N(a)da ∝ a-3.5da, where a is the grain radius. It extends from 5 nm to 1 μm for → graphite and over a narrower range for other materials.
MNR, the initials of authors J. S. Mathis, W. Rumpl, and K. H. Nordsiek (1977, ApJ 217, 425), who introduced the mode; → dust; → model.
modelsâzi-ye adadi (#), tarzâlsâzi-ye ~
Fr.: modélisation numérique
The prediction of the evolution of a system via numerical construction of approximate solutions to the governing equations.
oblique rotator model
model-e carxande-ye yekvar
Fr.: modèle de rotateur oblique
A stellar model in which the rotation axis is tilted relative to the magnetic dipole axis. As the star rotates, observable quantities (e.g. the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field, stellar brightness, emission lines) are modulated according to the rotational period. Such a model was first put forward by D. Stibbs (1950, MNRAS, 110, 395).
Fr.: modèle des crÃªpes
A model of galaxy formation in which regions of primordial gas as massive as clusters of galaxies began to collapse into thin sheets (pancakes). Within the pancakes, smaller regions of gas later collapsed to form individual galaxies.